LEAP Project

The Livingstone Online TEI P5 Encoding Guidelines

Table of contents

1. About the Livingstone Online TEI P5 Encoding Guidelines

These guidelines (TEI P5 ODD Customization) summarize Livingstone Online project practices for encoding in TEI P5 the manuscripts of David Livingstone (1813-1873), the Victorian explorer, abolitionist, and missionary. The guidelines also offer a fairly comprehensive overview of Livingstone's practices and idiosyncrasies as a writer.

The guidelines are a product of the Livingstone Online Enrichment and Access Project (LEAP), a three-year initiative (2013-2016) funded by the National Endowment for the Humanities (USA). James Cummings with assistance from Adrian S. Wisnicki, Heather F. Ball, and Justin Livingstone created the guidelines, with the initial prose based on Livingstone Online's TEI P5 Tagging Guidelines written by Adrian S. Wisnicki and Heather F. Ball.

Significant contributions to the development of the guidelines have also come from the LEAP critical encoding team: Angela Aliff, Mary Borgo, Erin Cheatham, Samantha Fitch, Ashanka Kumari, Chris Lawrence, Anne Martin, Jared McDonald, Alexander Munson, Kate Simpson, and Megan Ward (critical encoding director).

The guidelines are released under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported license, and we encourage broad, non-commercial use of the guidelines per the open educational remit of Livingstone Online.

2. Overview

2.1. Documentation Markup

In the prose of this documentation XML Elements, Attributes and Values appear as follows:

(Note: the colors/formats are provided only to assist you in distinguishing between tags, attributes, and values. You do not need to change font colors in your transcriptions as you are transcribing. In general these colours mimic those found in the oxygen XML editor.)

2.2. Marking Up Text - Basic Rules

  1. When text is marked up, a tag is placed at the beginning of the text as well as at the end, per the following format: Original text:
    the man turned out to be Livingstone
    Marked up:
    the man turned out to be <persName>Livingstone</persName>

    Note: that the first tag denotes the beginning of the marked up text, while the second tag begins with "/" and denotes the end of the marked up text.

  2. If the opening tag includes an attribute, the attribute is NOT repeated in the closing tag: Original text:
    we were greeted by the Nyamwezi
    Marked up:
    we were greeted by the <term type="tribe">Nyamwezi</term>
  3. If there are two or more tags nested over one bit of text, the closing tags are placed in reverse order:

    Original text:
    we saw the Lualaba
    Marked up:
    we saw the <placeName><geogName>Lualaba</geogName></placeName>
  4. An attribute is always accompanied by a value, for instance:
    <term type="tribe">Nyamwezi</term>
  5. If an opening tag ends with a "/", then it is an "empty element" combining the opening and closing tag and need not be used again at the end of whatever is being marked up. Original text:
    we saw the Lualaba
    Marked up:
    <lb/>we saw the Lualaba
  6. Any problems related to the transcription should be addressed directly in the transcription at the points where they occur using the "comment out" feature. Original text:
    He called me over.
    Marked up:
    He called me over. <!-- The text is very illegible here and I've done the best I could. However, this might also be transcribed as "He willed in on me." What should I do? DH -->
    In other words the commented out bit begins with <!-- followed by a space and ends with -->. Always add your initials inside but at the end of the comment.

2.3. File Naming

When transcribing, please use the LEAP designated file name for the given item. This can be found on Livingstone Online along with the rest of the bibliographical data for the given item. So, for instance, Livingstone's letter to Rev. D.G. Watt (18 August 1850) would be:

liv_000699.xml

If you are transcribing the given item with other individuals in sequence (and so the transcription is not yet final) please add your initials directly after the LEAP designated name:

liv_000699_aw_hb_ks_hb.xml

In the above example, the four sets of intials indicate that the transcription has been worked on in four stages. The first three stages were done by three different individuals (aw, hb, ks) and the last stage was done by the second individual (hb).

The xml:id value on the <TEI> element of any LEAP file should be the initial parts of the LEAP designated file name without the '.xml' suffix.
<?xml-model href="leap.rng" type="application/xml" schematypens="http://relaxng.org/ns/structure/1.0"?> <?xml-model href="leap.rng" type="application/xml" schematypens="http://purl.oclc.org/dsdl/schematron"?> <TEI xml:id="liv_000699" xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/1.0">   <!-- Change the xml:id above to be the LEAP file name without suffix -->  </TEI>                 

Please Note: All TEI P5 XML files are in the TEI Namespace which means their root element has a psuedo-attribute xmlns with a value of "http://www.tei-c.org/ns/1.0". This is the TEI Namespace and is inherited by any elements underneath keeps TEI elements safe from confusion with similarly-named elements from other schemes.

Definitions of the elements used above are:

4. Divisions of the Text

We use the <div> to contain the main body of text of any given Livingstone object, so in most cases a transcription will only have one <div> elment that opens and closes the text. However, there are some cases where a second <div> element should be used. See 5. Front and Back Matter, 11.4. Textual Colors, and 11.9. Textual Directions.

Definitions of the elements used above are:

5. Front and Back Matter

Use <front> and <back> elements (siblings of the <body> element) to contain to any material that, respectively, precedes (e.g., a table of contents) or succeeds (e.g. an appendix) the main text being encoded.
<front> <!-- Table of contents goes here --></front>   <body>    <div>        <p> <!-- Main text being encoded goes here --></p>    </div>   </body>   <back> <!-- Appendix goes here --></back>

Definitions of the elements used above are:

6. The Beginning of a New Page

After the initial <text><body><div> tags (already in the diary template document), make sure there is a <pb/> element at the beginning of each new page/image that you transcribe. Note that the manner in which this is based on the LEAP designated file name
<pb facs="liv_000699_0001.jpgn="0001"/> <!-- a page worth of text --> <pb facs="liv_000699_0002.jpgn="0002"/>

Note that this combined or empty element ends with a "/" and has no separate closing tag. The facs attribute points to the image facsimile for this page, the n attribute records the project page number separately.

Definitions of the elements used above are:

7. The Beginning of a Manuscript Line

Whenever you come to the beginning of a manuscript line, use
<lb/>
No corresponding tag is needed at the end of the line. Original text:
As we traveled 
I came
across two men.
Marked up:
<lb/>As we traveled <lb/>I came <lb/>across two men.
If line breaks occur in the middle of an addition, do not place <lb/> before the first line of the addition, but do use it to mark the beginning of each subsequent line of the addition:
<add place="marginleft">First line of addition <lb/>second line, <lb/>and third line.</add>

Definitions of the elements used above are:

8. The Beginning of a New Paragraph

When you start a new paragraph, use the following tag: <p>

The rend attribute is used to indicate information about the rendering of the paragraph as a whole in the original source. For example, if the paragraph as a whole was centered on the page, you might give it a value of "center" or if aligned right a value of "right". The use of rend to say whether something is centered or right (left is considered the default so there is no need to record that) is a bit of a judgment call regarding the placement of the paragraph on the page.
<p rend="right">This paragraph is aligned to the right on the page.</p>

For more information about the rend attribute see 11.3. Textual Formatting.

The default assumption is that a paragraph is indented, so there is no need to mark that. For marking the exceptionally indented first lines of paragraphs see 11.6. More Than One Space between Words.

However, if a paragraph is not indented, please mark it as follows:
<p rend="no-indent">This paragraph is not indented</p>

Note: It is especially important to use <p rend="no-indent"> when marking new, dated diary entries that Livingstone begins on a new line but does not indent.

Also, remember at the end of the paragraph to use the closing paragraph tag </p>.

Finally, note that we capitalize the first word of a new paragraph by default. If it is not capitalized, use the <choice>, <sic>, and <corr> tags to correct this.
<p><choice><sic>arrived</sic><corr>Arrived</corr></choice> at the lake.</p>

Definitions of the elements used above are:

9. Dates

For marking up dates use the <date> element with the when attribute. The value of the when attribute should always be given in this YYYY-MM-DD format (four-digit year, two-digit month, two-digit day). This is an important international standard for representing dates and stops people and computers getting confused as to whether '05/02/71' means the second of May or the fifth of February:
<date when="1871-02-05">5th February 1871</date>
If only the month and year (and not the day) are given, code as follows:
We visited in <date when="1871-02">February 1871</date>
However, if the day (and month) are given, but not the year, yet you know the year provide it. For instance, if Livingstone begins a diary entry with "5th" but you know from previous entries that this actually means 5th February 1871, then code it as follows:
We visited last year on the <date when="1871-02-05">5th</date>
If you don't know the year, bring it to the attention of the project and code it as follows:
We visited on <date when="--02-05">5th February</date>
Finally, use the from and to attributes to provide a start and end date of a range. Use these as needed:
<date from="1871-02-05to="1871-02-07">5th to 7th February 1871</date>
For B.C. dates code as follows:
<date when="-600-03-28">28 March 600 B.C.</date>
or
<date when="-600">600 B.C.</date>

For coding dates that Livingstone adds to the margin of the Unyanyembe Journal, see 11.15. Authorial Notes within the Text.

Definitions of the elements used above are:

10. Letters

10.1. The Opening and Closing of Letters

Note that the opening and closing of letters often have items which aren't strictly paragraphs. The TEI has special elements just for these. The entire beginning of a letter should be contained within an <opener> tag. Within this <opener> tag, any address or date will also be contained within a single <dateline>. Finally, any personalized greeting, should go inside of a <salute> tag:
<lb/><opener><dateline rend="right"><placeName>Hadley Green</placeName> <lb/><date when="1857-08-22">22 August <lb/>1857</date></dateline> <lb/> <lb/><salute>My Dear Sir,</salute></opener>                     
Likewise, the end of a letter should be contained within a <closer> tag, with any personalized address contained within a <salute> tag and any signature within a <signed> tag.:
<lb/><closer><salute>Sincerely,</salute> <lb/><signed><persName>David Livingstone</persName></signed></closer>                     

For both the <opener> and <closer>, linebreaks (see 7. The Beginning of a Manuscript Line) should be marked in the regular fashion, as in the examples above.

The <date> and <persName> elements are discussed in more detail below.

Definitions of the elements used above are:

10.2. Postal Address of Letter Recipient

The portion of each letter that contains that postal address of the letter recipient should be placed inside both the <closer> and <address> elements. If the placement of the address within the letter does not allow for the address to be added to the <closer>, then place the address in a separate set of <div> and <ab> elements. The beginning of each line of the address should be marked with <addrLine> and the end of each line of address should be marked with </addrLine>. Note too that when you use the <addrLine> tag, you should not use the <lb/> tag (see 7. The Beginning of a Manuscript Line). In other words, use <addrLine> or <lb/>, but not both.
<address> <addrLine><persName>Bevan Braithwaite</persName></addrLine> <addrLine><placeName>3 New Court</placeName></addrLine> <addrLine><placeName>Lincoln's Inn</placeName></addrLine> </address>

Definitions of the elements used above are:

10.3. Postscripts

Use the <postscript> element to contain the entirety of any postscript added to a letter. Each separate postscript should be contained by its own element. The n may be used to number successive postscripts.
<lb/><postscript n="1"><label>P.S.</label> Give my regards  <lb/>to your children.</postscript> <lb/><postscript n="2"><label>P.P.S.</label> And greet your parents</postscript>

Note: In order for your use of the <postscript> to validate, it may be necessary to place empty <opener/> and <closer/> tags before it, if you haven't already otherwise used such tags.

Definitions of the elements used above are:

11. Marking Authorial Composition Practices

11.1. Any Type of Heading

Use the <head> element for any type of heading, such as the title of a chapter or section or the heading of a list
<head>Chapter I</head>

Definitions of the elements used above are:

11.2. Running Header (including Authorial Page Numbers)

Use the <fw> element to contain any type of running head (usually, but not always, found in the header or footnote of a given page) that appears on a page or series of pages. The rend may be used as needed to mark the location of this element.
<fw rend="center">1</fw>

For any page numbers instituted by Livingstone himself, use the <fw> element plus n in the following manner:

<fw n="heading_XIV">XIV</fw>

In other words, whenever <fw> is used to encode one of Livingstone's page numbers, n value should begin with "heading_" followed by the number Livingstone uses, in the form that he uses it (i.e., Roman or Arabic numeral).

Definitions of the elements used above are:

11.3. Textual Formatting

If the original text is formatted in some manner such as underlining, superscript, etc., use the <hi> element with the rend attribute.

Original text:
I saw the man
Marked up:
I saw <hi rend="underline">the man</hi>

If there is more than one type of formatting, for instance both underline and superscript, use the rend attribute only once but provide two values separated by a space.

Original text:
He was the Number 1 man
Marked up:
He was the N<hi rend="sup underline">umber</hi> 1 man
Please Note: The rend attribute is part of the att.global class and so can be used on other elements if they are present. For example instead of marking up:
<hi rend="underline"><placeName><geogName type="river">Lualaba</geogName></placeName></hi>                     
one can do:
<placeName rend="underline"><geogName type="river">Lualaba</geogName></placeName>                     
but if unsure then the former is acceptable.

Definitions of the elements used above are:

11.4. Textual Colors

Livingstone occasionally changes the color of his text. In the majority of cases, such changes fall into one of two categories: a change in color for a few words; a change in color for a longer section of a text. Changes of the former sort (a few words) are usally due to an after-the-fact addition, so the color change should be marked with rend and the appropriate color directly on the <add> element:
We followed <add place="aboverend="blue">the</add> path
If Livingstone changes color for a longer section of text (this often happens in his field diaries), use the <seg> element (or, for very long sections, <div> element) plus rend and the appropriate color to mark the different sections of the text:
<div> <lb/><p><seg rend="black">First section in black would go here and <lb/>could span part of a line, a line, or several lines</seg>.</p> </div> <div rend="blue"> <lb/><p>Second longer section in blue would go here.</p> </div>             
Please note: Sometimes words appear to be the same color but are darker than their surrounding text. This may or may not be an intentional attempt by Livingstone to emphasize a portion of the text. To be on the safe side, code such darkening as appropriate. If it seems to be intentional, code it as follows with hi plus the appropriate color:
<p rend="black"><hi rend="black"><persName>Mtarika</persName></hi> came at last.</p>
If it seems to be unintentional, code it with seg plus the appropriate color:
<lb/><p rend="black">They do not appear to have asked for the <lb/><seg rend="black">names of places</seg> so much as for those of people</p>                 

Definitions of the elements used above are:

11.5. A Word Broken Up Over Two Lines

Use the <w> element to mark words that Livingstone breaks up over two lines. You also add the break attribute with the value of "no" to the <lb/> that falls between the two halves of the word. For LEAP materials the assumed value for the break attribute is yes, so you do not need to provide this unless it is an exceptional circumstance. Use maybe only in those cases when you are not sure whether a single word apparently broken up over two lines may indeed be two words.

Livingstone's use of hyphens is erratic. Sometimes he hyphenates a word at the end of the first line, sometimes at the beginning of the second, sometimes in both places, sometimes in neither.

We code each of these instances in the same way, but we also always supply a hyphen at the end of the line if Livingstone himself has failed to provide it.

Example #1 (no hyphen at all)
<lb/>I look on the drove they brought <w>un<supplied>-</supplied>  <lb break="no"/>chained</w> with a sort of pleasure after
Example #2 (hyphen only in first line)
<lb/>by one of <persName>Dugumbe</persName>'s people after <w>finish- <lb break="no"/>ing</w> a piece of work = said he was tired
Example #3 (hyphen only in second line)
<lb/>sorely needed to be employed <w>him<supplied>-</supplied>  <lb break="no"/>-self</w> in something else than penny
Example #4 (hyphen in both lines)
<lb/>by which the irresponsible <w>con- <lb break="no"/>-clave</w> brought the Indian command

Definitions of the elements used above are:

11.6. More Than One Space between Words

If you are encoding text where the author has placed more than one space between words, do not insert additional space in your transcription. Rather insert only one space plus the following markup:
a <space extent="4unit="chars"/>word

In other words, in the example above the space being marked is actually five characters long. One of these spaces is marked in the normal fashion, the other four are marked with the <space> tag. Please follow this format when marking usual spacing between words.

The value for the extent attribute will of course be a bit of a judgment call, but a good rule of thumb is to mark only those spaces that extend for more than two characters and/or have some obvious, non-trivial significance in the text. For instance, Livingstone on occasion inserts an unusally large space just before a new sentence and indeed uses this space to indicate that the substance of the sentence that follows the space differs significantly from that of the sentence that precedes the space.

The value "chars" stands for "characters"; you can also use "words". There is a dim attribute on <space> with allowed values of horiztonal or vertical. The default assumption in LEAP is that extra space is horizontal so this does not need to be marked.

Definitions of the elements used above are:

11.7. One or More Spaces between Lines

If you are encoding text where the author has left extra spaces between lines, you can mark up the spaces in one of two ways:

If there is only one space between lines, only an extra <lb/> tag is needed:
<lb/><p>...and he arranges any <lb/>differences that may <lb/>arise -</p> <lb/> <lb/><p>Called at <persName>Mataka</persName>'s house ...</p>                         
If there is more than one space between lines, a <space/> tag is used, along with the dim, extent, and unit attributes and their appropriate values.
<lb/><p>...and he arranges any <lb/>differences that may <lb/>arise -</p> <lb/><space dim="verticalextent="3unit="lines"/> <lb/><p>Called at <persName>Mataka</persName>'s house ...</p>                         

Definitions of the elements used above are:

11.8. Dividing Lines Across the Page

Livingstone often uses lines that he draws across the page to separate sections of the text. Sometimes he uses a single line that runs across the entire page from left to right; sometimes a double-line; sometimes a single line that only runs across half or a quarter of the page. For all such lines, use the <milestone/> element in the following manner:

<lb/><milestone unit="sectionrend="line"/>

As in the example, <milestone/> should always inlcude a unit attribute with the value of "section" and a rend attribute. Possible values for the rend attribute include: "line", "double-line", "triple-line", "three-quarter-line", "half-line", "quarter-line", "dotted-line", and "dotted-double-line".

Definitions of the elements used above are:

11.9. Textual Directions

There are four possible situations we've encountered, so here's how to handle them:

  1. The page text is upside-down. If it is upside-down for only a phrase or a few lines, use <seg rend="upside-down"> or some other relevant element to contain the text. If it runs upside-down for a larger amount of text, create a new <div> and mark the orientation there: <div rend="upside-down">.
  2. The page text is horizontal, then it clearly continues to vertical text in the margin. Use <cb/> plus rend with a value of vertical in either one of the two following ways (line numbering continues in the normal way):
    1. If the vertical text in the margin is really a new paragraph then mark it as such by ending the current paragraph with </p> at the end of the horizontal text, then start the vertical text with <cb rend="vertical"/><p> and when you finish the vertical text close it with </p> as normal.
    2. If the vertical text in the margin continues the horizontal text without a paragraph break, do not end the paragraph but indicate the place where the text changes to vertical with a <cb rend="vertical"/> element. When the paragraph ends mark it with a closing </p>.
  3. The page text is horizontal, but ends at the bottom of the page. You believe that the vertical text continues from the horizontal text, but it seems to be a new "section" (how you define section is a bit subjective). Then close the horizontal text as normal with </p></div>. Begin the vertical text as a new division with <div rend="vertical"><p> then when it is finished close the vertical text with </p></div> and begin the next section with a new <div> tag. In other words, you're breaking this up into two sections (with one or more paragraphs inside) that you believe are continuous. Line numbering is continuous.
  4. The page text is horizontal and may or may not end at the bottom of the page. The vertical text has no clear relationship to the horizontal text. End the page text with </p> (whether or not it continues to the next page), then begin the vertical text with <cb rend="vertical"><ab> and close the vertical text with </ab>. Then on the next page, whether or not it's a new paragraph, begin with <p>, etc. Restart the line numbering in this new <ab>section.

Definitions of the elements used above are:

11.10. Text with No Clear Relationship to the Surrounding Text

Occasionally Livingstone includes blocks of text on a given manuscript page that have no clear relationship to the main text on that page. Such blocks should be encoded with the <ab> element.

<lb/><p> <!-- First line of main text --> <lb/> <!-- Second line of main text --> <lb/> <!-- Last line of main text, etc. --></p> <lb/><ab> <!-- First line of text with no clear relation to main text --> <lb/> <!-- Second line of text with no clear relation to main text, etc. --></ab>

Note that, as in the example above, you can use <p> or <ab> to enclose sections of text, but not both.

Definitions of the elements used above are:

11.11. Addition to or Deletions from the Original Manuscript

If a portion of the text has been added by the author or someone else other than you (see above), use <add> to mark up that text. The place attribute has values of: "inline", "above", "below", "marginleft", "marginright", "margintop", "marginbottom". Original text:
he saw us [in this case it's clear in the ms. that "saw" was added later]
Marked up:
he <add place="inline">saw</add> us
If a portion of the text has been deleted by the author or someone else, use <del> to mark up that text. Optinally, use the type attribute to indicate the type of deletion with values of "strikethrough" (deleted with a single line) or "cancelled" (deleted with multiple lines). Original text:
he saw us
Marked up:
<del type="strikethrough">he saw us</del>
If the deletion makes the character(s) or word(s) being deleted impossible to read, use the <gap> element to indicate this:
<del><gap extent="1unit="words"/></del>

Note: For coding additions and deletions that span more than a few lines of text, please consult the project team.

If it isn't a standalone addition or deletion but you believe a combined deletion and addition has been done (usually by the author) as a single intervention, then you may nest the <del> and <add> elements in a <subst> (substitution) element.
Then we went <subst><del>towards</del><add place="inline">to</add> the river</subst>
When Livingstone uses a caret (^) to indicate the place of an addition, use a separate <add> tag for the caret and place a space between the tagged caret and the additional text that Livingstone has added:
<add place="below">^</add> <add place="above">a word</add>
In both the cases of added or deleted text, if you believe that the work has been done by someone other than Livingstone but cannot identify who that person is, use the hand attribute with a value of "#U".
he <add place="inlinehand="#U">saw</add> us
If the other hand is writing in a different color to that used in the body of Livingstone's text, capture this using the rend attribute with the appropriate color as a value (see 11.4. Textual Colors):
<add place="inlinerend="grayhand="#U2">addition by an editor</add>
Deletions work in the same way:
<del type="cancelledrend="redhand="#U3">deletion by an editor</del>
The #U is a pointer to a <handNote> element (in a <handDesc> in a <physDesc> in the <msDesc> in the <sourceDesc> in the header).
<!-- in the <sourceDesc> in the header --> <physDesc>     <handDesc>         <handNote xml:id="U"><label>Unknown Hand</label> This hand is unknown             but thought not David Livingstone's.</handNote>     </handDesc> </physDesc> <!-- later in the text --> <lb/>he <add place="inlinehand="#U">saw</add> us

If you can identify individual hands, but not to whom they belong, these values could be #hand01 or #hand02 or similar.

Finally, to denote any kind of arrow or other mark (other than a caret) that Livingstone uses to indicate where a bit of add or deleted text should go, use an empty <metamark/> element.
Then we went towards <metamark/><add place="inline">home</add>. <!-- Livingstone writes "home" in the margin, then uses a long arrow to indicate it should be placed here. AW -->

Note: The Missionary Travels team is also working with more specialized metamarks. For guidance on using these, see 24.4. Metamarks. This additional coding is not required in other parts of the project, so should only be done in consultation with the project team.

Definitions of the elements used above are:

11.12. Additions or Deletions that Span More Than One Paragraph

For additions or deletions that span more than one paragraph (<p>) or section of text (<ab>), use the <addSpan/> or <delSpan/> elements combined with the <anchor/> element.

The <addSpan/>, <delSpan/>, and <anchor/> elements can appear anywhere in a <div>, including outside or inside a <p> or <ab>. As a result, they can be used to mark precisely where a longer addition or deletion begins and ends without regard to other coding.

Use these tags as follows. First, place a <addSpan/> or <delSpan/> element where the given addition or deletion begins and include an spanTo attribute with the value preceded by "#" [number sign]:
<addSpan spanTo="#longadd-1"/>
or
<delSpan spanTo="#del-1"/>
Then, wherever the addition or deletion ends, place an <anchor/> with an xml:id attribute. The value of the xml:id will correspond to the spanTo value, but will not include the "#" [number sign]:
<anchor xml:id="longadd-1"/>
or
<anchor xml:id="del-1"/>

Note: In the above examples the values "longadd-1" and "del-1" are arbitrary. The value, however, must be the same for the <addSpan/> and its corresponding <anchor/> tag, or for <delSpan/> and its corresponding <anchor/> tag. The given value should not otherwise be repeated for any other tags. Depending on the project, you will be given specific instructions on how to derive these values for each instance of <addSpan/> or <delSpan/> in order to avoid repetition.

Also note: You may place the hand and rend attributes on the <addSpan/> or <delSpan/> to indicate, respectively, the individual who made the addition or deletion, or other characteristics of the addition or deletion:
<lb/><delSpan spanTo="#del-2rend="grayhand="#U2"/>lengthy passage written by Livingstone <lb/>but deleted by unknown hand #2 in pencil<anchor xml:id="del-2"/>

Also note: If the given addition or deletion spans less than one paragraph, then use the <add> or <del> tags (see 11.11. Addition to or Deletions from the Original Manuscript).

Definitions of the elements used above are:

11.13. Standalone Additions to the Main Text

On a number of occasions, Livingstone or someone else places an addition elsewhere other than in the immediate area where it should be added (for instance on another page). The place for insertion is often indicated by an arrow that runs from the addition to its intended position. Code such additions as follows.

First, code the addition in the place where it actually appears on the page.

If the addition is on an otherwise blank page, this will involve indicating that there are empty lines that precede the addition. For this, use the <space/> tag (see 11.7. One or More Spaces between Lines):
<space dim="verticalextent="10unit="lines"/>
Then transcribe the addition as normal, being sure to wrap it in the <add> tag. You should also use the attribute corresp on the <add> tag which will link the addition to the place in the text where it is to be inserted:
<add place="inlinecorresp="#add-1">a portion of text on a page of its own that DL wants to insert elsewhere</add>

(Notice that the value for corresp is preceded by a "#" [number sign].)

Finally, on the page where the addition should be inserted, indicate the specific place for the insertion by using the <anchor/> tag with an attribute xml:id. Be sure to leave a space before and after this tag:
<anchor xml:id="add-1"/>

(Notice that the value of the attribute xml:id is the same as on the corresp above, but now is not preceded by a "#" [number sign].)

Note: In the above example the value of "add-1" is arbitrary. The value must be the same for the relevant attributes on the <add> and <anchor/> tags, but should also not be repeated for any other tags. Depending on the project, you will be given specific instructions on how to derive this value for each such addition in order to avoid repetition.

Also note: The above method can be used to insert longer additions that span several paragraphs by replacing <add> with <addSpan/>. (For guidance on <addSpan> see 11.12. Additions or Deletions that Span More Than One Paragraph).

However, to use <addSpan/> to encode a standalone addition, two <anchor/> tags will be required – one in conjunction with <addSpan/> to record the extent of the addition (i.e., its beginning and end), the other to mark the place the addition is intended to be inserted. The <addSpan/> should thus have both the spanTo and corresp attributes.

For example:
<lb/><addSpan spanTo="#longadd-1corresp="#add-17"/><p>a long addition <lb/>going over multiple paragraphs</p> <lb/><p>to be inserted on another page.</p><anchor xml:id="longadd-1"/>                                  <pb facs="liv_000099_0376.jpgn="0376"/> <lb/><p>Text from Livingstone that does not  <lb/>continue from the previous page <anchor xml:id="add-17"/> <lb/>more text</p>

In the example above, the first <anchor/> tag thus indicates where the addition ends; the second <anchor/> tag indicates where Livingstone wants the addition inserted.

Note: In the above example, the value "longadd-1" on spanTo is arbitrary. The value must be the same for the corresponding <addSpan/> and <anchor/> tags but should also not be repeated for any other tags. Depending on the project, you will be given specific instructions on how to derive this value for each instance of <addSpan/> in order to avoid repetition.

Definitions of the elements used above are:

11.14. Text Written Over Other Text

Livingstone often deletes a character or word by writing another character or word over it. For such instances use the following coding formula:
He <subst><del>gave</del><add place="over-text">handed</add></subst> it to me.
If such a substitution occurs in the middle of a word, you may use <w> to avoid confusion by indicating the beginning and end of the full word:
He <w>g<subst><del>i</del><add place="over-text">a</add></subst>ve</w> it to me.
If someone else (for instance, the editor in Missionary Travels) intervenes by writing directly over one of Livingstone’s words or characters with a different word or symbol, code as follows.
<subst><del hand="#U2">no</del><add place="over-textrend="grayhand="#U2">any</add></subst>

In the example above, unknown hand #2 writes the word "any" over Livingstone’s word "no." The mark up shows that Livingstone’s initial word has been replaced (and hence deleted) by overwriting.

Sometimes Livingstone writes over a word suggested by another individual with a different character or word in order to delete or change the suggested character or word. We thus have an addition by someone else that is replaced by Livingstone's overwriting. This is encoded similarly to the previous examples, while also showing that the initial word was added by another hand:
<add place="marginleftrend="grayhand="#U2"><subst><del hand="#DL">editor's  word</del><add place="over-texthand="#DL">Livingstone’s correction</add></subst></add>
If Livingstone writes over a word or a symbol suggested by someone else in order to confirm it (i.e., Livingstone writes the same word or symbol), code Livingstone’s addition using the <retrace> element:
<retrace hand="#DL"><add place="belowrend="redhand="#U3">^</add>  <add place="aboverend="redhand="#U3">him from</add></retrace>

The <retrace> element specifies that it is Livingstone’s hand doing the retracing.

Finally, sometimes Livingstone deletes a word that has already been deleted by someone else. In other words, he confirms the deletion. To encode this form of overwriting, code the word as a double deletion by enclosing it within two <del> elements:
<del type="cancelledhand="#DL"><del type="cancelledhand="#U2">You</del></del>

In the example above, the word "You" has been deleted by someone else and then also deleted by Livingstone.

Definitions of the elements used above are:

11.15. Authorial Notes within the Text

Use the <note> element anytime Livingstone himself inserts a note, gloss, or footnote outside the body of the main text that explains an item within the main text.
the whole tribe x  <add place="marginleft"><note>if it were necessary for me  to seek a character I would confidently refer to the  <term type="tribe">Bakwains</term> for it</note></add>
The <note> element combined place and the "marginleft" value should also be used to mark the dates that Livingstone periodically adds to the left margin of the Unyanyembe Journal. These should be marked as they occur, even if that happens in the middle of a sentence:
<lb/>I was content <lb/><note place="marginleft"><date when="1871-05-08">8th</date></note> to take the canoe on any terms -

If the date added to the left margin spans more than one line, use <lb/> as appropriate (see 7. The Beginning of a Manuscript Line):

<lb/><note place="marginleft"><date when="1866-04-13">13<hi rend="sup underline">th</hi>  April <lb/>1866</date></note> alone but other nations feel

Definitions of the elements used above are:

12. Recording Editorial Interventions

12.1. Authorial Punctuation and Capitalization

Livingstone limits his punctuation primarily to n-dashes (-), which often shade into m-dashes or even longer dashes, and equal signs (=). He distinctly prefers n-dashes, but he uses these interchangeably with equal signs in places of such punctuation as commas, colons, semicolons, and periods as well as to mark simple pauses in the text. When transcribing an n-dash or equal sign, please adhere to the following guidelines.

When Livingstone uses an n-dash for any reason other than hyphenation of a word, place a space before and after the n-dash when trascribing it, even if it looks like Livingstone himself hasn't:

a very old town - country

Likewise, when transcribing an equal sign that Livingstone has used as punctuation, place a space before and after, even if it looks like Livingstone himself hasn't:

tea = coffee

When Livingstone uses an n-dash to introduce or follow a quotation, he places the n-dash directly below the opening or closing quotation marks rather than next to them. However, when transcribing this, you should nonetheless put a space between the dash and the quotation mark:

He said - "I will" - in answer to me.

If unsure, whether Livingstone is using a period or dash, select dash by default.

If Livingstone's n-dash looks like an m-dask or even longer, use two or more n-dashes without any space between them:

poor -- mostly

Livingstone also has a tendency to run the first person pronoun ("I") onto the following word, as in the following: "Iwent". All instances of this should be silently separated when transcribed:

I went

Livingstone is by no means consistent in his use of capitalization and, moreover, it is often even not clear whether a word is capitalized or not. When transcribing, use the following rules of thumb. When a word is capitalized (or not) and the context suggests this is correct, transcribe as is. When a word is capitalized (or not) and the context suggests this is incorrect, transcribe as is but if (in your opinion) it is very important that the capitalization be corrected, use <choice> plus <sic> and <corr> to provide a corrected verison of the word:

The man spoke to me - <choice><sic>then</sic><corr>Then</corr></choice> he left.

For use of the <choice>, <sic>, and <corr> elements, see 12.2. Authorial Grammatical, Typographical, and Other Mistakes.

Finally, if it is not clear whether a word is capitalized and it would therefore be OK to transcribe it either way, allow context to guide your decision as to whether to capialize it or not.

12.2. Authorial Grammatical, Typographical, and Other Mistakes

When you encounter some sort of textual mistake made by the author, mark it with a combination of the <choice> element and both the <sic> (apparent error) and <corr> (correction) elements. Original text:
I recieved your letter
Marked up:
<choice><sic>recieved</sic><corr>received</corr></choice> your letter
If there is an uncertainty as to the correction that you provide use the cert attribute with values of "low", "medium", "high" to denote the degree of confidence in the addition you have made:
<choice><sic>recieved</sic><corr cert="high">received</corr></choice>
If a duplicate word appears in the text, use the <choice>, <sic>, and <corr> elements to remove it:
till the <choice><sic>the</sic><corr/></choice> astringent poison
Note: Livingstone tends to leave off apostrophes for contractions and possessives. To mark such instances in the text, do not use <supplied> plus an apostrophe, but rather code with <choice> plus <sic> and <corr>:
<choice><sic>dont</sic><corr>don't</corr></choice>

Important Note: Be sure to remember that there is a difference between errors and variants. If Livingstone makes an obvious error, then use <choice>, <sic>, and <corr>, as described above. However, if Livingstone uses a variant that would not have been incorrect in his own day (e.g., Mosambique) and/or that exists in a more common, alternative form now (Mozambique), use <choice>, <orig>, and <reg> to normalize this (see 12.7. Normalized Text).

Definitions of the elements used above are:

12.3. Text that is Not Clear

Use <unclear> to mark up any text that is not clear; furthermore, use the cert attribute with values of "low", "medium", or "high" to denote the degree of confidence in the transcription you have made:
he said he would <unclear cert="low">say</unclear> me tomorrow

Definitions of the elements used above are:

12.4. Variant Readings

Use the <app> element plus at least two or more instances of the <rdg> element to mark valid alternate readings of a single word or textual passage. If needed, cert may be used with values of "low", "medium", "high" to denote the degree of confidence in a given reading.
<app><rdg cert="high">will</rdg><rdg>well</rdg></app>

Definitions of the elements used above are:

12.5. Missing Portions of the Manuscript Page or Text that is Illegible

We use <gap> to tag text that is wholly illegible due to deletion or some other factor, or missing all together from the manuscript page due to physical damage. The <gap> element never contains text:
<lb/><gap extent="6unit="charsagent="blot"/> sugar -- candles

In the <gap> element, the values we use for the agent attribute include: "blot", "fading", "hole", "illegible", "overwriting", and "stain".

The value of the extent attribute is always an approximation.

Note: For coding manuscript damage that spans more than a few lines of text, please consult the project team.

Definitions of the elements used above are:

12.6. Portion of the Text that You Have Supplied

If a portion of the original text is missing for whatever reason and you supply it, use <supplied> to mark up this addition; furthermore, use the cert with values of "low", "medium", "high" to denote the degree of confidence in the addition you have made:

Original text:
He saw man
Marked up:
he saw <supplied cert="high">the</supplied> man

Important Note: You should be very conservative in your use of the <supplied> tag and only supply text of which you are 100% certain. Otherwise, use <gap/>. In other words, avoid guessing at Livingstone's meaning unnecessarily.

Note: The <supplied> tag is never nested in the <gap> tag.
he saw <gap agent="damageextent="3unit="letters"/><supplied cert="high">the</supplied> man

Definitions of the elements used above are:

12.7. Normalized Text

Use the <choice> element plus <orig> and <reg> to mark any instances where Livingstone's text, although not incorrect necessarily, is nonetheless normalized or otherwise corrected by you.
<choice><orig>shew</orig><reg>show</reg></choice>
Note: this also includes the normalization of proper nouns:
The <term type="tribe"><choice><orig>Suaheli</orig><reg>Swahili</reg></choice></term>
The <placeName><geogName type="river"><choice><orig>Chambeze</orig><reg>Chambezi</reg></choice></geogName></placeName>

Definitions of the elements used above are:

13. Project-Specific Formatting Practices

13.1. The Ampersand and Other Special Characters

When you transcribe an ampersand, use &amp; instead of an actual ampersand: Original text:
I saw John & Jim
Marked up:
I saw John &amp;amp; Jim
If you come across any other unusual characters that are not found within the "Insert from Character Map" option from the "Edit" dropdown menu in oXygen, add a comment to draw the attention of the project to this.
<!-- Adrian, there is a weird character you need to insert here. DH -->

13.2. Quotation from Another Source

When dealing with a quotation from another source, usually a printed source (which may or may not be explicitly identified in Livingstone's text), use the <quote> element.
As it is stated in the Bible, "<quote>Neither do men light a candle, and put it under a bushel...</quote>."
Note: As in the example above, the <quote> element goes inside of the quotation marks that surround the given quotation. In other words, do not mark the quotation marks as part of the quotation.

Definitions of the elements used above are:

13.3. Abbreviations

When you encounter an abbreviation made by the author, mark it with the <choice> element and both the <abbr> (abbreviation) and <expan> (expansion) elements. Original text:
my no. 1 friend
Marked up:
my <choice><abbr>no.</abbr><expan>number</expan></choice> 1 friend
If there is an uncertainty as to the expansion that you provide, use the cert attribute with values of "low", "medium", "high" to denote the degree of confidence in the expansion you have provided.
my <choice><abbr>no.</abbr><expan cert="high">number</expan></choice>

Please note: any prefix pertaining to a personal name, i.e. Dr, Mr, Miss, Rev, need not be expanded.

Definitions of the elements used above are:

13.4. Fractions

We use <choice> and the <orig> and <reg> elements to encode fractions:
<choice><orig>½</orig><reg>1/2</reg></choice>

Definitions of the elements used above are:

14. Names of People

When marking up a person's name, use the <persName> element.
I saw <persName>David Livingstone</persName>
However, note the following example:
I saw <persName>Dr David Livingstone</persName>'s tent

Please note: any prefix pertaining to a personal name, i.e. Dr, Mr, Miss, Rev, should be included within the <persName> element but and does not need to be expanded. Likewise any possessive marker ('s) can be outside the <persName>.

Definitions of the elements used above are:

15. Place Names and Geographical Elements

When you mark up a geographical element, use the <placeName> element and one of the following: <bloc> (for multi-national entities like 'Africa'), <country> (for countries), <region> (for large administrative units), or <settlement> (for cities, towns, villages). On <settlement> use the type attribute to record values such as "city", "town", or "village".
<placeName><settlement type="village">Nyangwe</settlement></placeName>
Use <geogName> to denote a specific named geographical entity not covered by the above, using the type attribute with values such as "lake", "river", etc.
<placeName><geogName type="river">Nile</geogName></placeName>

Note: Livingstone uses distinct abbreviations to denote "river" and "rivulet." He abbreviates "river" as either "R." or "R", while he abbreviates "rivulet" as "Rt" or "Rt". In the latter case, the superscript "t" may resemble a superscript "r" but should nonetheless be treated as a "t". Code these abbreviations as follows:

the <placeName><geogName type="river">Lualaba <choice><abbr>R.</abbr> <expan>River</expan></choice></geogName></placeName>
the <placeName><geogName type="rivulet">Lipande <choice><abbr>R<hi rend="sup">t</hi></abbr> <expan>Rivulet</expan></choice></geogName></placeName>

You should also use <geogName> when encoding the full reference to a geographical entity that includes any kind of formal name (which itself would also be separately encoded:

<placeName><geogName type="source">sources of the <placeName><geogName type="river">Nile</geogName></placeName></geogName></placeName>

If Livingstone refers to a specific, named geographical entity (and you know what that entity is), but uses only a generic term such as "the Lake" or "the River," you should identify this entity in a comment that directly follows the relevant term, but not otherwise mark the term used:

I saw the Lake. <!-- geog: Tanganyika -->

Note: Livingstone uses "Metamba" to reference the Central African rainforest, although the term is really a local word for "forest." To account for this usage, please code as follows:

<foreign xml:lang="und"><placeName><region><geogName type="forest">Metamba</geogName></region></placeName></foreign>

Note: "Cape" and "Interior" should be coded with the <region> element (even though technically incorrect). Code "Zanzibar" as follows:

<placeName><geogName type="island">Zanzibar</geogName></placeName>

Directional words (North, South, East, and West) should not be tagged when referring to directions. Rather tag directional words only when Livingstone uses them to designate a region:

<placeName><region>South of <placeName><geogName type="lake">Lake Nyassa</geogName></placeName></region></placeName>

Definitions of the elements used above are:

15.1. Geographical Measurements

Use the <measure> element to mark any geographical quantities (including geographical coordinates) that Livingstone cites in the text. This includes distances measured in days or hours as well (most often used in reference to the party's marches).
The village was <measure>a few days' march</measure> from here
If Livingstone provides an obvious group of geographical quantities, an additional <measure> element should be used to encapsulate the group.
The river was <measure><measure>30 feet deep</measure>  and <measure>1000 yards across</measure></measure>

Note: If Livingstone introduces a larger set of geographical coordinates, these should normally not be transcribed, but rather be noted with the <figure> and <figDes> elements. See 22. Figures, Drawings, and Calculations.

Definitions of the elements used above are:

16. References to Weather

Use <seg type="weather"> to mark passages in the text where Livingstone refers to the weather.

We have <seg type="weather">rain in large quantity almost every night</seg>

Such weather references may be loosely made, and it may be difficult to determine where exactly they begin and end. In all cases use the <seg> elment and best judgment to mark such references. Opt for one use of <seg> to mark a longer passage with a series of specific descriptions rather than multiple uses of the <seg> element.

Note: When Livingstone provides the outside temperature, this should be be coded with only <seg type="weather">, and not the <measure> element.

6 AM <seg type="weather">98°</seg>

Definitions of the elements used above are:

17. Terms to Mark

17.1. Animals (Including Fish), Insects, Plants, and Foodstuffs

When dealing with animals, including fish, use the <term> element with the type attribute with a value of "animal". The value of "animal" in the singular should be used in all cases, even when the text refers to multiple animals of one kind. Livingstone's uses of general terms such as "animal" or "beast" need not be tagged.
<term type="animal">elephants</term>
When dealing with insects, use the <term> element with the type attribute with a value of "insect". The value of "insect" in the singular should be used in all cases, even when the text refers to multiple insects of one kind. Livingstone's uses of general terms such as "insects" or "bugs" need not be tagged.
<term type="insect">tetse</term>
When dealing with specifically named plants, use the <term> element with the type attribute with a value of "plant". The value of "plant" in the singular should be used in all cases, even when the text refers to multiple plants of one kind. Livingstone's uses of general terms such as "trees," "bushes," or "grass" need not be tagged.
<term type="plant">Euphorbias</term>
When dealing with foodstuffs, use the <term> element with the type attribute with a value of "foodstuff". The value of "foodstuff" in the singular should be used in all cases. Livingstone's uses of general terms such as "food" need not be tagged.
<term type="foodstuff">bread</term>
If Livingstone refers to a foodstuff that is also a plant, use the <term> element with the type attribute with the value of "plant_foodstuff" (in that order):
<term type="plant_foodstuff">maize</term>
This format should be used regardless of the state in which the given item appears in the text.
<term type="plant_foodstuff">coffee</term>
If Livingstone refers to an animal that, in context, is also a foodstuff, code as follows using two <term> elements:
<term type="animal"><term tag="foodstuff">goat</term></term>
Beverages, both alcoholic and non-alcoholic, should be coded as foodstuff and follow previously stated formats.
<term type="foodstuff">brandy</term>

Note: Terms relating to meals (such as breakfast, lunch, supper) should not be coded as "foodstuff."

Definitions of the elements used above are:

17.2. Nationalities

When dealing with nationalities used adjectivally, use the <term> element with the type attribute with a value of "nationality".
the <term type="nationality">English</term> settlements

Definitions of the elements used above are:

17.3. People of a Given Nationality

When dealing with people of a given nationality (e.g., Englishmen, Americans), use the <term> element with the type attribute with a value of "people".
<term type="people">Englishmen</term>
If the reference is to just one person of a nationality (e.g., a Englishman, American), use the <term> element with the type attribute with a value of "person".
<term type="person">Englishman</term>

Definitions of the elements used above are:

17.4. African Tribes

When marking up an African tribal name, use the <term> element with the type attribute with a value of "tribe".
I saw the <term type="tribe">Nyamwezi</term>

Definitions of the elements used above are:

17.5. Religious Faith

Use the <term> element with a type attribute with a value of "faith" to mark instances in the text where religious faith or an organized religion is cited.
<term type="faith">Christianity</term> and <term type="faith">Islam</term>
<term type="faith">Christian</term> values

However, for practitioners of particular faiths, see 18. Organizations and Other Groups.

Definitions of the elements used above are:

17.6. Occupation

Use the <term> element with a type attribute with a value of "occupation" anytime an occupation of any sort is mentioned in the text.
Livingstone was a <term type="occupation">missionary</term><term type="occupation">geographer</term>, and <term type="occupation">abolitionist</term> 

Note: In Missionary Travels, the following terms and any variations thereof should be marked up as "occupation": chief, chieftain, and rain doctor.

Definitions of the elements used above are:

17.7. Medical Terms

When marking up a medical reference or term, use <term> plus the type attribute and appropriate value, such as "ailment" or medicament".
I had <term type="ailment">malaria</term> for a month.

Definitions of the elements used above are:

18. Organizations and Other Groups

Use the <orgName> element to mark instances in the text where there is mention of an organization or other type of group (or any reference to an individual as being part of a group) that is not covered by 17.2. Nationalities, 17.3. People of a Given Nationality, or 17.4. African Tribes. Note that all the following entities should be marked with the <orgName> element: Aborigine, Aborigines, African, Africans, Arab, Arabs, Banian, Banians, Boer, Boers, Bushman, Bushmen, Caffre (or the variant spellings, Kaffre and Kaffir), Caffres (or the variant spellings, Kaffres and Kaffirs), Christian (an individual; for use of Christian as an adjective, see 17.5. Religious Faith), Christians, European, Europeans, Griqua, Moslem (an individual; for use of Moslem as an adjective, see 17.5. Religious Faith), and Moslems. For references to organized religions (e.g., Christianity, Islam), see 17.5. Religious Faith.

the <orgName>the London Missionary Society</orgName>
<orgName>African</orgName> villages
I spoke with the <orgName>Arab</orgName>

"Johanna men" and "Nassick boys" (and all variants of these two groups) to be coded as follows:

<orgName><placeName><geogName type="island">Johanna</geogName></placeName> men</orgName>
<orgName><placeName><settlement type="city">Nassick</settlement></placeName> boys</orgName>

Note: All references to "slaves" and "slavery" should also be marked with <orgName> as should references to "caste," "freemen," "free men," "natives," "cannibals," and "flesh eaters":

He had two <orgName>slaves</orgName> and spoke of <orgName>slavery</orgName>
It is believed by the <orgName>natives</orgName>.

Please note: Havildar and Sepoy (singular and plural) should be marked with both <orgName>, and <term> with the type attribute and a value of "occupation":

<orgName><term type="occupation">Havildar</term></orgName>
<orgName><term type="occupation">Sepoys</term></orgName>

Groups relating to a specific person should also be marked with <orgName>:

<lb/><orgName><persName>Emboro</persName>'s men</orgName>
<lb/>from depositions of survivors of <orgName><persName>Baron</persName>'s party</orgName>                 

Definitions of the elements used above are:

18.1. Additional Notes on Coding Organizations

In some cases, one or more entities encoded with the <orgName> or <term type="occupation"> tags may themselves, in combination, constitute a larger organization or group. In such cases, nestle the individual entities within one additonal <orgName> as follows:

An <orgName><orgName>Arab</orgName> <term type="occupation">trader</term></orgName>.
<orgName><term type="nationality">Portuguese</term> <term type="occupation">sailor</term></orgName>.

In the above examples, "Arab" and "trader" (first example) and "Portuguese" and "sailor" (second example) are coded per normal practice, but are also collectively encapsulated, in each case, in an additional <orgName> tag.

Note: All variants of "slave trader" should be coded in the following unique manner:

<orgName><term type="occupation"><orgName>slave</orgName> trader</term></orgName>

In other words code "slave" with <orgName> per usual practice. Then code the whole phrase "slave trader" as a <term type="occupation">. Finally, wrap the fully coded phrase "slave trader" in an additional <orgName> tag.

Definitions of the elements used above are:

19. Bibliographical Elements

Use <bibl> to encode any elements of a book, including the title, that Livingstone references:

<bibl>Genesis</bibl>
Also use <bibl> to encode any mention of letters or manuscripts, including Livingstone's own:
<lb/><bibl>Letters from <placeName><settlement type="city">Mecca</settlement></placeName></bibl> told of its coming
or
<lb/>he assures me that my <bibl>packet of letters</bibl> was not destroyed

Definitions of the elements used above are:

20. Words in a Foreign Language

When dealing with foreign words, there are three steps to complete:

  1. Find the abbreviation for the foreign language at the following webpage: https://www.iana.org/assignments/language-subtag-registry/language-subtag-registry
  2. In the header, add in a <langUsage> for the foreign language under the one for English as follows. Put English first, then all other languages in alphabetical order:
    <langUsage>  <language ident="en">English</language>  <language ident="la">Latin</language> </langUsage>
  3. Within the text, when the language comes up, you code the word/phrase as follows:
    <foreign xml:lang="la">et id genus omne</foreign>
    Please note: The <foreign> tag should go outside of any other tags used relating to the word or phrase:
    <foreign xml:lang="nym">  <term type="occupation">Pagazi</term> </foreign>

Please note: If you are unsure of the language/dialect, but know that it is not English, simply mark it as "Undetermined" using the code "und". Also, we do not tag references to languages (Spanish, French, etc.) in any way.

Definitions of the elements used above are:

21. Using Lists and Tables

Use the <list> element to contain any lists that appear in the text. The title of any such list should be marked with the <head> element, while <item> should be used for each item within the list:
<list><head>Villages:</head> <item>Bambarre,</item> <item>Nyangwe,</item> <item>Ujiji</item></list>
Lists may also be broken up with line breaks (<lb/>)as needed:
<list><head>Villages</head>  <lb/><item>Bambarre</item> <lb/><item>Nyangwe</item> <lb/><item>Ujiji</item></list>
Livingstone's texts sometimes also contain tables or have information laid out in a such a way that the table format seems appropriate. Code tables and similar text (as seems appropriate -- such use may be subjective) with the <table> tag plus the <head> (for any title that the table may have), <row>, and <cell> tags.
<table><head>Villages</head>  <lb/><row><cell>Bambarre</cell> <cell>West of Lake Tanganyika</cell></row> <lb/><row><cell>Nyangwe</cell> <cell>West of Lake Tanganyika</cell></row> <lb/><row><cell>Ujiji</cell> <cell>East of Lake Tanganyika</cell></row></table>
Note: Headings, lists, items, tables, rows, and cells may all be assigned various attributes and values as relevant, as in the following example where color is marked, rows are numbered, and cells are coded for placement on the page:
<table rend="blue"><head rend="black">Villages</head>  <lb/><row n="1"><cell rend="left">Bambarre</cell> <cell rend="right">West of Lake Tanganyika</cell></row> <lb/><row n="2"><cell rend="left">Nyangwe</cell> <cell rend="right">West of Lake Tanganyika</cell></row> <lb/><row n="3"><cell rend="left">Ujiji</cell> <cell rend="right">East of Lake Tanganyika</cell></row></table>
Note on all the above: Normally, in the examples above, the various settlements, regions, and geographical entities would be coded as per the instructions set out elsewhere in this manual. However, such coding has here been omitted for the sake of simplicity and clarity in the examples given. Additionally, in the last example, the numbering of rows is done only for illustrative purposes. Such numbering is optional and should normally not be undertaken.

Definitions of the elements used above are:

22. Figures, Drawings, and Calculations

If you come across any figures, drawings, or calculations, please mark them with an empty <figure/> element. However, you can also describe them using the <figDesc> element, which must then be contained by the <figure> element.
The <term type="animal">lion</term> looked like this: <figure/>
The <term type="animal">lion</term> looked like this: <figure>  <figDesc>Drawing of a lion with it's mouth open towards the viewer.</figDesc> </figure>
The description of the figure should be short and to the point, as in the example above. In the description, you should not as a rule describe the extent of the figure (i.e, "for three lines," etc.), but rather should focus only on its content. Also, assume that phrases like "Livingstone has here..." are a given and do not need to be used explicitly.
If Livingstone has himself given the figure a title, use the <head> element to record this:
The <term type="animal">lion</term> looked like this: <figure>  <head>Lion</head>  <figDesc>Drawing of a lion with it's mouth open towards the viewer.</figDesc> </figure>
If your description of the figure cites any text that Livingstone himself has provided and that text in turn can be coded, then it should be coded directly in the citation:
The <term type="animal">lion</term> looked like this: <figure>  <head>Lion</head>  <figDesc>Drawing of a lion with it's mouth open    towards the viewer, with a note from Livingstone that he saw this lion "in the <placeName>    <geogName type="desert">Kalahari</geogName>   </placeName>."</figDesc> </figure>

Definitions of the elements used above are:

23. Anything Unusual in the Text

If you come across anything unusal in the text that cannot be otherwise encoded, please do not mark it other than leaving a comment to alert the project team.
<!-- Adrian: There's a drawing or something strange here. DH -->

24. Missionary Travels Specific Practices

24.1. Page Numbers

In the manuscript of Missionary Travels, page numbers generally appear in the running header in the top margin and so should appear in the <fw> element. The <add> elements plus the place attribute is used to show that they appear in the "margintop". Since the numbers have been added later by an editor or group of editors hand is also required. To indicate the colour and their position within the margintop, use rend. For example:
<lb/><fw><add place="margintophand="#U1rend="gray right">5</add></fw>
If there are two sets of numbers, as often happens, encode them as follows:
<lb/><fw><add place="margintophand="#U1rend="gray right">26</add>  <add place="margintophand="#U1rend="gray right">29</add></fw>

The above example indicates that "26" and "29" appear sequentially, left to right and separated by a space, in the right-hand corner of the top margin of the given page.

Note: While the various sets of numbers may be added by different hands there is little to be gained by differentiating them. Indeed, it’s quite likely that they’re actually the same hand – sometimes it’s difficult to distinguish between them. So on the assumption that it’s one hand adding the numbers, but perhaps at different times, we consider them to be two separate additions.

Also note: While "gray right" is often the right value to use on rend, "gray left" and "gray center" will also be required on occasion.

Also note: Occasionally one set of page numbers appears below the other. In such cases, use a second place value to indicate this, as follows:
<fw><add place="margintophand="#U1rend="gray right">58</add>  <add place="margintop belowhand="#U1rend="gray right">80</add></fw>

Definitions of the elements used above are:

24.2. Page Layout

In Missionary Travels, the majority of text is rendered to the right of the page in order to leave room for marginal comments on the left. Accordingly, the value "right" is used on rend in the <body> element at the beginning of the transcription i.e. <body rend="right">.

Encode any departure from this norm. To do so, use <seg> with the rend attribute. For example, when Livingstone writes across the full width of the page, departing from his usual practice of writing on the right hand side, mark it up as follows:
<lb/><seg rend="left">portion of text written across the full width of the page</seg> <lb/>return to normal text

Please also include a comment in such places, noting that Livingstone has departed from his norm by writing a portion of text across the full width of the page.

Definitions of the elements used above are:

24.3. Textual Formatting in Another Hand

In Missionary Travels the various editors occasionally format portions of Livingstone's text. For instance, unknown hand#2 might underline one of Livingstone's words in pencil. Record such occurrences using the resp (responsibility) attribute on the <hi> tag. Use the rend attribute per usual practice, as necessary, to record other characteristics of the formatting.

For example:
<hi rend="gray underlineresp="#U2">some words of Livingstone's underlined in gray by unknown hand #2</hi>

Note: The <hi> element doesn’t accept hand, so we indicate authorial responsibility using resp, as in the example above.

Also note: If both Livingstone and an editor format the same portion of text, use two separate <hi> tags to distinguish between the hands:
<hi rend="gray underlineresp="#U2"><hi rend="underlineresp="#DL">rain making</hi></hi>

Definitions of the elements used above are:

24.4. Metamarks

  1. Long Arrows

    Carets that appear on their own are encoded as follows:
    <add place="below">^</add>

    But when there appears to be a caret with a long line following it, we should just treat this as an arrow and therefore encode it with the <metamark/> tag. In other words, in such a case we shouldn’t mark up the caret and arrow separately.

    For such arrows: Use the <add> element since most of them are clearly added later in order to point to an additional piece of text.

    Also include function on the <metamark/> to indicate the purpose of the metamark. Arrows will be marked up with the function "insertion".

    For the most part, these arrows go all the way from a point in the body of the text to a portion of additional text in the margin. We'll consider the arrow, along with the additional text, to be added in the "marginleft" (or "margintop", "marginbottom", etc. as appropriate). The <metamark/> is thus included as part of the same addition as the portion of text in the margin. Accordingly, long arrows will generally be encoded as follows:
    <add place="marginleft"><metamark function="insertion"/>rest of Livingstone's text in the margin</add>

    Note: Long arrows leading to a portion of text are generally the only metamarks (aside from carets) that should be nested in an <add> tag. See further details below.

    Definitions of the elements used above are:

    • add (addition) contains letters, words, or phrases inserted in the source text by an author, scribe, or a previous annotator or corrector.
    • metamark contains or describes any kind of graphic or written signal within a document the function of which is to determine how it should be read rather than forming part of the actual content of the document.
      functiondescribes the function (for example status, insertion, deletion, transposition) of the mark.
  2. Other Metamarks

    Where possible, record the purpose of a particular metamark by using the function attribute with any of the following values: "insertion", "deletion", "reorder", "newParagraph", "let-stand", or "query":

    • "insertion": Use this for arrows intended to indicate an addition included in the margin or elsewhere.
    • "deletion": Use this for the proof correction mark for delete (used by unknown hand #2), and editorial pencil marks/boxes that are intended to indicate a deletion.
    • "reorder": This should be used when a line or mark is included to indicate that a portion of text should be moved to another place. (Also see Note on "reorder" below.)
    • "newParagraph": Use this for signs that are intended to indicate that a new paragraph should be taken. For the most part we’ll use this when Livingstone or an editor uses "/" and "//".
    • "let-stand": Use this when Livingstone or the editor underlines a word with a dotted line. This is the proof correction mark for "let stand," indicating that a word marked for deletion should instead be retained.
    • "query": Use this for any mark used to query a word or portion of text. For example, a circle or square drawn around a word in order to draw attention to it.

    For metamarks not covered by the above, only record the presence of the <metamark/> along with a note that the metamark should be reviewed.

    Sometimes, a closed metamark will be sufficient:
    <metamark function="insertion"/>

    However, if a metamark encloses text (for example, a square or circle is drawn around a word, or a long line in the margin brackets a portion of text), encode the extent of the metamark by using the spanTo attribute and the <anchor/> tag, as per the following instructions.

    At the beginning of a portion of text surrounded by a metamark, encode as normal, marking the function, but now including the spanTo attribute as well.
    <metamark function="queryspanTo="#meta-1"/>

    (Notice that the value for spanTo is preceded by a "#" [number sign].)

    Next, indicate the place that the metamark ends by using the <anchor/> tag with an attribute of xml:id. The <anchor/> tag simply marks a spot, and in this case indicates the endpoint of the metamark:
    <anchor xml:id="meta-1"/>

    (Notice that the value of the attribute xml:id is the same as on the spanTo above, but now is not preceded by a "#" [number sign].)

    For example:
    <metamark function="queryspanTo="#meta-1"/>Livingstone's text, enclosed in a circle<anchor xml:id="meta-1"/>
    Please also add a comment describing the metamark:
    <!-- Livingstone has drawn a circle around the word "and." JL -->

    In the above example, the value of "meta-1" is arbitrary. The value must be the same for spanTo on the <metamark/> tag and xml:id on the <anchor/> tag, but should also not be repeated for any other tags. Drawing from the list on the Missionary Travels google doc "Transcription Workflows," use the next available value and highlight it in yellow to show that it has been used.

    Note: If a metamark is in an unusual place (for example "marginleft", "margintop", "marginbottom"), you may also include the place attribute on <metamark/>. This is only necessary if the metamark is outside (or above or below) the body of the text and needs to be signalled specially.

    Also note: Often a metamark is written by an editorial/unknown hand, but surrounds text written by Livingstone. Record such instances using the rend and resp (responsibility) attributes on <metamark/>:
    <metamark function="queryrend="grayresp="#U2"  spanTo="#meta-2"/> Livingstone's text<anchor xml:id="meta-2"/>

    As in the example above, the <metamark/> element doesn’t accept hand, so we indicate the authorial responsibility using resp.

    Please note that it is generally only necessary to use a separate <add> tag on a metamark when encoding a long arrow leading to a portion of text. In other words, if the metamark is part of a longer addition that includes text added by either DL or an editor, it should be nested in an <add> tag. Otherwise, by default we assume that metamarks are added later and therefore this does not need to be coded separately.

    Definitions of the elements used above are:

    • metamark contains or describes any kind of graphic or written signal within a document the function of which is to determine how it should be read rather than forming part of the actual content of the document.
      functiondescribes the function (for example status, insertion, deletion, transposition) of the mark.
      spanTo [att.spanning]indicates the end of a span initiated by the element bearing this attribute.
      rend [att.global.rendition](rendition) indicates how the element in question was rendered or presented in the source text.
      resp [att.global.responsibility](responsible party) indicates the agency responsible for the intervention or interpretation, for example an editor or transcriber.
    • anchor/ (anchor point) attaches an identifier to a point within a text, whether or not it corresponds with a textual element.
      xml:id [att.global](identifier) provides a unique identifier for the element bearing the attribute.
    • add (addition) contains letters, words, or phrases inserted in the source text by an author, scribe, or a previous annotator or corrector.
  3. Note on "reorder"

    When a textual mark or arrow is used to signal that a portion of text should be moved to another place in the document (often up or down several lines), do not move the word itself while transcribing. Instead, transcribe what you see on the page, while capturing the intended reordering as follows:

    First, mark the portion of text intended for relocation using the <seg> element with the corresp attribute. For example:
    <seg corresp="#reorder-1">some words to be moved three lines below</seg>

    (Notice that the value for corresp is preceded by a "#" [number sign].)

    Next, at the place where the word(s) are intended to be moved to, indicate this by using the anchor tag, which simply marks a spot. Leave a space before and after this tag:
    <lb/>the text to be repositioned belongs right <anchor xml:id="reorder-1"/> in the middle of this sentence.

    (Notice that the value of the attribute xml:id is the same as on the corresp above, but now is not preceded by a "#" [number sign].)

    Finally, since reordering in Livingstone’s manuscripts is indicated using a metamark of some kind, the word or words marked up using <seg> should also be wrapped in the <metamark/> and <anchor/> tags. Use these tags as explained above, remembering to include the function, rend, and resp attributes on <metamark/> as appropriate. For example:
    <lb/><metamark function="reorderrend="grayresp="#U2"  spanTo="#meta-3"/> <seg corresp="#reorder-2">some words, circled by an editor,</seg><anchor xml:id="meta-3"/> <lb/>to be placed in the middle <anchor xml:id="reorder-2"/> of the line below.

    Note: In the above examples the values "reorder-1" and "reorder-2" are arbitrary. The value must be the same for corresp on the <seg> tag and the xml:id on the <anchor/> tag, but should also not be repeated for any other tags. Drawing from the list on the Missionary Travels google doc "Transcription Workflows," take the next available value and highlight it in yellow to show that it has been used.

    Also note: If it is the case that two words are intended to be switched (a transposition, technically), code this as a single reordering where possible (i.e. if the two words are side-by-side). However, if it is not possible to capture Livingstone's or the editor's intention using a single reordering, code the two words as separate reorderings, each contained in their own <metamark/> and <anchor/> tags.

    In the example below, Livingstone intends to transpose the words "lions" and "baboons":
    <lb/><metamark function="reorderspanTo="#meta-4"/><seg corresp="#reorder-3">lions</seg> <anchor xml:id="meta-4"/> <anchor xml:id="reorder-4"/> and <metamark function="reorderspanTo="#meta-5"/> <seg corresp="#reorder-4">baboons</seg><anchor xml:id="meta-5"/> <anchor xml:id="reorder-3"/> 

    Definitions of the elements used above are:

    • seg (arbitrary segment) represents any segmentation of text below the ‘chunk’ level.
      corresp [att.global.linking](corresponds) points to elements that correspond to the current element in some way.
    • anchor/ (anchor point) attaches an identifier to a point within a text, whether or not it corresponds with a textual element.
      xml:id [att.global](identifier) provides a unique identifier for the element bearing the attribute.
    • metamark contains or describes any kind of graphic or written signal within a document the function of which is to determine how it should be read rather than forming part of the actual content of the document.
      functiondescribes the function (for example status, insertion, deletion, transposition) of the mark.
      rend [att.global.rendition](rendition) indicates how the element in question was rendered or presented in the source text.
      resp [att.global.responsibility](responsible party) indicates the agency responsible for the intervention or interpretation, for example an editor or transcriber.
      spanTo [att.spanning]indicates the end of a span initiated by the element bearing this attribute.

24.5. Substantial Sections in Another Hand

Short portions of text in another hand are encoded using variations on the following formula:
<add place="inlinerend="grayhand="#U2">addition by an editor</add>
If, however, the hand changes for a longer portion of text (for instance, for many paragraphs or even several pages), use the <div> element plus the resp attribute to mark the new hand composing the section. For example:
<div resp="#CL"> <lb/><p>long portion of text in Charles Livingstone's hand.</p> </div>

This is particularly important for volume three of Missionary Travels, where a considerable portion of text is written by Charles Livingstone and by another unidentified hand.

Note: <p> must be contained within <div>, so the previous paragraph must be closed before a new <div> can be opened. Whether or not the long portion of text begins a new paragraph, it will thus be necessary to make one to indicate the change of hand.

Definitions of the elements used above are:

24.6. Handnotes

It is important to note that multiple hands contribute to the manuscript of Missionary Travels. (For guidance on coding these, see 11.11. Addition to or Deletions from the Original Manuscript and 24.5. Substantial Sections in Another Hand.)

In Missionary Travels the hands currently in use are:

Remember that both known and unknown hands require a <handNote> in the header:
<handNote xml:id="U1"><label>Unknown Hand 1</label>  This hand belongs to a later librarian or archivist, whose  additions are normally limited to adding page numbers.</handNote> <handNote xml:id="U2"><label>Unknown Hand 2</label>  This hand is unknown but is thought to be an editor or group  of editors in the employment of the publisher, John Murray,  making corrections and additions in pencil.</handNote> <handNote xml:id="U3"><label>Unknown Hand 3</label>  This hand is unknown but is thought to be an editor or group  of editors in the employment of the publisher, John Murray,  making corrections and additions in red ink.</handNote> <handNote xml:id="U4"><label>Unknown Hand 4</label>  This unknown hand is possibly Dr Keith of Hamilton.</handNote> <handNote xml:id="CL"><label>Charles Livingstone</label>  This hand belongs to Charles Livingstone.</handNote>                         

Please notify the project team if you discover another hand.

Note: In the example above, empty lines have been put between the <handNote> elements to facilitate reading, but such emtpy lines are not necessary in your actual transcription

Definitions of the elements used above are:

Appendix A Summary of Elements in LEAP Schema

Analysis Module

Core Module

Figures Module

Header Module

Linking Module

Manuscript Description Module

Names and Dates Module

Text Critical Apparatus Module

Text Structure Module

Transcription Module

Appendix B Formal declaration and Reference Pages

Appendix B.1 Elements

Appendix B.1.1 <TEI>

<TEI> (TEI document) contains a single TEI-conformant document, containing a single TEI header, a single text, one or more members of the model.resourceLike class, or a combination of these. A series of <TEI> elements may be combined together to form a <teiCorpus> element. [4. Default Text Structure 15.1. Varieties of Composite Text]
Moduletextstructure — Formal declaration and Reference Pages
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style)) (att.global.linking (@corresp)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp))
versionspecifies the major version number of the TEI Guidelines against which this document is valid.
StatusOptional
Datatype
data.version
NoteThe major version number is historically prefixed by a P (for Proposal), and is distinct from the version number used for individual releases of the Guidelines, as used by (for example) the source of the <schemaSpec> element. The current version is P5.
Contained by
May contain
header: teiHeader
textstructure: text
transcr: facsimile
Declaration
element TEI
{
   att.global.attributes,
   attribute version { data.version }?,
   ( teiHeader, ( ( model.resourceLike+, text? ) | text ) )
}
Schematron
<s:ns prefix="tei"  uri="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/1.0"/> <s:ns prefix="xs"  uri="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"/>
Schematron
<s:ns prefix="rng"  uri="http://relaxng.org/ns/structure/1.0"/>
Example
<TEI version="5.0" xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/1.0">  <teiHeader>   <fileDesc>    <titleStmt>     <title>The shortest TEI Document Imaginable</title>    </titleStmt>    <publicationStmt>     <p>First published as part of TEI P2, this is the P5          version using a name space.</p>    </publicationStmt>    <sourceDesc>     <p>No source: this is an original work.</p>    </sourceDesc>   </fileDesc>  </teiHeader>  <text>   <body>    <p>This is about the shortest TEI document imaginable.</p>   </body>  </text> </TEI>
Example
<TEI version="5.0" xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/1.0">  <teiHeader>   <fileDesc>    <titleStmt>     <title>A TEI Document containing four page images </title>    </titleStmt>    <publicationStmt>     <p>Unpublished demonstration file.</p>    </publicationStmt>    <sourceDesc>     <p>No source: this is an original work.</p>    </sourceDesc>   </fileDesc>  </teiHeader>  <facsimile>   <graphic url="page1.png"/>   <graphic url="page2.png"/>   <graphic url="page3.png"/>   <graphic url="page4.png"/>  </facsimile> </TEI>
NoteThis element is required. It is customary to specify the TEI namespace http://www.tei-c.org/ns/1.0 on it, using the xmlns attribute.

Appendix B.1.2 <ab>

<ab> (anonymous block) contains any arbitrary component-level unit of text, acting as an anonymous container for phrase or inter level elements analogous to, but without the semantic baggage of, a paragraph. [16.3. Blocks, Segments, and Anchors]
Modulelinking — Formal declaration and Reference Pages
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style)) (att.global.linking (@corresp)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) att.typed (@type)
Member of
Contained by
May contain
Declaration
element ab { att.global.attributes, att.typed.attributes, macro.paraContent }
Schematron
<s:report test="(ancestor::tei:p or ancestor::tei:ab) and not(parent::tei:exemplum |parent::tei:item |parent::tei:note |parent::tei:q |parent::tei:quote |parent::tei:remarks |parent::tei:said |parent::tei:sp |parent::tei:stage |parent::tei:cell |parent::tei:figure)"> Abstract model violation: ab may not contain paragraphs or other ab elements. </s:report>
Schematron
<s:report test="ancestor::tei:l or ancestor::tei:lg"> Abstract model violation: Lines may not contain higher-level divisions such as p or ab. </s:report>
Example
<div type="bookn="Genesis">  <div type="chaptern="1">   <ab>In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.</ab>   <ab>And the earth was without form, and void; and      darkness was upon the face of the deep. And the      spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters.</ab>   <ab>And God said, Let there be light: and there was light.</ab> <!-- ...-->  </div> </div>
NoteThe <ab> element may be used at the encoder's discretion to mark any component-level elements in a text for which no other more specific appropriate markup is defined.

Appendix B.1.3 <abbr>

<abbr> (abbreviation) contains an abbreviation of any sort. [3.5.5. Abbreviations and Their Expansions]
Modulecore — Formal declaration and Reference Pages
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style)) (att.global.linking (@corresp)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) att.source (@source)
typeallows the encoder to classify the abbreviation according to some convenient typology.
Derived fromatt.typed
StatusOptional
Datatype
data.enumerated
Sample values include:
suspension
the abbreviation provides the first letter(s) of the word or phrase, omitting the remainder.
contraction
the abbreviation omits some letter(s) in the middle.
brevigraph
the abbreviation comprises a special symbol or mark.
superscription
the abbreviation includes writing above the line.
acronym
the abbreviation comprises the initial letters of the words of a phrase.
title
the abbreviation is for a title of address (Dr, Ms, Mr, …)
organization
the abbreviation is for the name of an organization.
geographic
the abbreviation is for a geographic name.
NoteThe type attribute is provided for the sake of those who wish to classify abbreviations at their point of occurrence; this may be useful in some circumstances, though usually the same abbreviation will have the same type in all occurrences. As the sample values make clear, abbreviations may be classified by the method used to construct them, the method of writing them, or the referent of the term abbreviated; the typology used is up to the encoder and should be carefully planned to meet the needs of the expected use. For a typology of Middle English abbreviations, see [[undefined PETTY]]
Member of
Contained by
May contain
Declaration
element abbr
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.source.attributes,
   attribute type { data.enumerated }?,
   macro.phraseSeq
}
Example
<choice>  <expan>North Atlantic Treaty Organization</expan>  <abbr cert="low">NorATO</abbr>  <abbr cert="high">NATO</abbr>  <abbr cert="highxml:lang="fr">OTAN</abbr> </choice>
Example
<choice>  <abbr>SPQR</abbr>  <expan>senatus populusque romanorum</expan> </choice>
NoteThe <abbr> tag is not required; if appropriate, the encoder may transcribe abbreviations in the source text silently, without tagging them. If abbreviations are not transcribed directly but expanded silently, then the TEI header should so indicate.

Appendix B.1.4 <accMat>

<accMat> (accompanying material) contains details of any significant additional material which may be closely associated with the manuscript being described, such as non-contemporaneous documents or fragments bound in with the manuscript at some earlier historical period. [10.7.3.3. Accompanying Material]
Modulemsdescription — Formal declaration and Reference Pages
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style)) (att.global.linking (@corresp)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) att.typed (@type)
Member of
Contained by
msdescription: physDesc
May contain
Declaration
element accMat
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.typed.attributes,
   macro.specialPara
}
Example
<accMat>A copy of a tax form from 1947 is included in the envelope with the letter. It is not catalogued separately.</accMat>

Appendix B.1.5 <acquisition>

<acquisition> contains any descriptive or other information concerning the process by which a manuscript or manuscript part entered the holding institution. [10.8. History]
Modulemsdescription — Formal declaration and Reference Pages
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style)) (att.global.linking (@corresp)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) att.datable (@calendar, @period) (att.datable.w3c (@when, @notBefore, @notAfter, @from, @to))
Contained by
msdescription: history
May contain
Declaration
element acquisition
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.datable.attributes,
   macro.specialPara
}
Example
<acquisition>Left to the <name type="place">Bodleian</name> by <name type="person">Richard Rawlinson</name> in 1755. </acquisition>

Appendix B.1.6 <add>

<add> (addition) contains letters, words, or phrases inserted in the source text by an author, scribe, or a previous annotator or corrector. [3.4.3. Additions, Deletions, and Omissions]
Modulecore — Formal declaration and Reference Pages
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style)) (att.global.linking (@corresp)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) att.transcriptional (@hand, @status, @cause, @seq) (att.editLike (att.dimensions (@unit, @quantity, @extent, @precision, @scope) (att.ranging (@atLeast, @atMost, @min, @max, @confidence)) ) (att.source (@source)) ) att.placement (@place) att.typed (@type)
Member of
Contained by
May contain
Declaration
element add
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.transcriptional.attributes,
   att.placement.attributes,
   att.typed.attributes,
   macro.paraContent
}
Example
The story I am going to relate is true as to its main facts, and as to the consequences <add place="above">of these facts</add> from which this tale takes its title.
NoteIn a diplomatic edition attempting to represent an original source, the <add> element should not be used for additions to the current TEI electronic edition made by editors or encoders. In these cases, either the <corr> or <supplied> element are recommended.In a TEI edition of a historical text with previous editorial emendations in which such additions or reconstructions are considered part of the source text, the use of <add> may be appropriate, dependent on the editorial philosophy of the project.

Appendix B.1.7 <addName>

<addName> (additional name) contains an additional name component, such as a nickname, epithet, or alias, or any other descriptive phrase used within a personal name. [13.2.1. Personal Names]
Modulenamesdates — Formal declaration and Reference Pages
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style)) (att.global.linking (@corresp)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) att.personal (@full) (att.naming (@role) (att.canonical (@ref)) ) att.typed (@type)
Member of
Contained by
May contain
Declaration
element addName
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.personal.attributes,
   att.typed.attributes,
   macro.phraseSeq
}
Example
<persName>  <forename>Frederick</forename>  <addName type="epithet">the Great</addName>  <roleName>Emperor of Prussia</roleName> </persName>

Appendix B.1.8 <addSpan/>

<addSpan/> (added span of text) marks the beginning of a longer sequence of text added by an author, scribe, annotator or corrector (see also <add>). [11.3.1.4. Additions and Deletions]
Moduletranscr — Formal declaration and Reference Pages
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style)) (att.global.linking (@corresp)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) att.transcriptional (@hand, @status, @cause, @seq) (att.editLike (att.dimensions (@unit, @quantity, @extent, @precision, @scope) (att.ranging (@atLeast, @atMost, @min, @max, @confidence)) ) (att.source (@source)) ) att.placement (@place) att.typed (@type) att.spanning (@spanTo)
Member of
Contained by
May containEmpty element
Declaration
element addSpan
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.transcriptional.attributes,
   att.placement.attributes,
   att.typed.attributes,
   att.spanning.attributes,
   empty
}
Schematron
<sch:assert test="@spanTo">The @spanTo attribute of <sch:name/> is required.</sch:assert>
Schematron
<sch:assert test="@spanTo">L'attribut spanTo est requis.</sch:assert>
Example
<handNote xml:id="HEOLscribe="HelgiÓlafsson"/> <!-- ... --> <body>  <div> <!-- text here -->  </div>  <addSpan n="added gatheringhand="#HEOLspanTo="#P025"/>  <div> <!-- text of first added poem here -->  </div>  <div> <!-- text of second added poem here -->  </div>  <div> <!-- text of third added poem here -->  </div>  <div> <!-- text of fourth added poem here -->  </div>  <anchor xml:id="P025"/>  <div> <!-- more text here -->  </div> </body>
NoteBoth the beginning and the end of the added material must be marked; the beginning by the <addSpan/> element itself, the end by the spanTo attribute.

Appendix B.1.9 <additional>

<additional> groups additional information, combining bibliographic information about a manuscript, or surrogate copies of it with curatorial or administrative information. [10.9. Additional Information]
Modulemsdescription — Formal declaration and Reference Pages
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style)) (att.global.linking (@corresp)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp))
Contained by
msdescription: msDesc msPart
May contain
msdescription: adminInfo surrogates
Declaration
element additional
{
   att.global.attributes,
   ( adminInfo?, surrogates?, listBibl? )
}
Example
<additional>  <adminInfo>   <recordHist>    <p> <!-- record history here -->    </p>   </recordHist>   <custodialHist>    <p> <!-- custodial history here -->    </p>   </custodialHist>  </adminInfo>  <surrogates>   <p> <!-- information about surrogates here -->   </p>  </surrogates>  <listBibl>   <bibl> <!-- ... -->   </bibl> <!-- full bibliography here -->  </listBibl> </additional>

Appendix B.1.10 <addrLine>

<addrLine> (address line) contains one line of a postal address. [3.5.2. Addresses 2.2.4. Publication, Distribution, Licensing, etc. 3.11.2.4. Imprint, Size of a Document, and Reprint Information]
Modulecore — Formal declaration and Reference Pages
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style)) (att.global.linking (@corresp)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp))
Member of
Contained by
core: address
May contain
Declaration
element addrLine { att.global.attributes, macro.phraseSeq }
Example
<address>  <addrLine>Computing Center, MC 135</addrLine>  <addrLine>P.O. Box 6998</addrLine>  <addrLine>Chicago, IL</addrLine>  <addrLine>60680 USA</addrLine> </address>
Example
<addrLine>  <ref target="tel:+1-201-555-0123">(201) 555 0123</ref> </addrLine>
NoteAddresses may be encoded either as a sequence of lines, or using any sequence of component elements from the model.addrPart class. Other non-postal forms of address, such as telephone numbers or email, should not be included within an <address> element directly but may be wrapped within an <addrLine> if they form part of the printed address in some source text.

Appendix B.1.11 <address>

<address> contains a postal address, for example of a publisher, an organization, or an individual. [3.5.2. Addresses 2.2.4. Publication, Distribution, Licensing, etc. 3.11.2.4. Imprint, Size of a Document, and Reprint Information]
Modulecore — Formal declaration and Reference Pages
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style)) (att.global.linking (@corresp)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp))
Member of
Contained by
May contain
Declaration
element address
{
   att.global.attributes,
   ( model.global*, ( ( model.addrPart ), model.global* )+ )
}
Example
<address>  <street>via Marsala 24</street>  <postCode>40126</postCode>  <name>Bologna</name>  <name n="I">Italy</name> </address>
Example
<address>  <addrLine>Computing Center, MC 135</addrLine>  <addrLine>P.O. Box 6998</addrLine>  <addrLine>Chicago, IL 60680</addrLine>  <addrLine>USA</addrLine> </address>
NoteThis element should be used for postal addresses only. Within it, the generic element <addrLine> may be used as an alternative to any of the more specialized elements available from the model.addrPart class, such as <street>, <postCode> etc.

Appendix B.1.12 <adminInfo>

<adminInfo> (administrative information) contains information about the present custody and availability of the manuscript, and also about the record description itself. [10.9.1. Administrative Information]
Modulemsdescription — Formal declaration and Reference Pages
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style)) (att.global.linking (@corresp)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp))
Contained by
msdescription: additional
May contain
core: note
header: availability
msdescription: custodialHist recordHist
Declaration
element adminInfo
{
   att.global.attributes,
   ( recordHist?, availability?, custodialHist?, model.noteLike? )
}
Example
<adminInfo>  <recordHist>   <source>Record created <date>1 Aug 2004</date>   </source>  </recordHist>  <availability>   <p>Until 2015 permission to photocopy some materials from this      collection has been limited at the request of the donor. Please ask repository staff for details      if you are interested in obtaining photocopies from Series 1:      Correspondence.</p>  </availability>  <custodialHist>   <p>Collection donated to the Manuscript Library by the Estate of      Edgar Holden in 1993. Donor number: 1993-034.</p>  </custodialHist> </adminInfo>

Appendix B.1.13 <affiliation>

<affiliation> contains an informal description of a person's present or past affiliation with some organization, for example an employer or sponsor. [15.2.2. The Participant Description]
Modulenamesdates — Formal declaration and Reference Pages
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style)) (att.global.linking (@corresp)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) att.editLike (att.dimensions (@unit, @quantity, @extent, @precision, @scope) (att.ranging (@atLeast, @atMost, @min, @max, @confidence)) ) (att.source (@source)) att.datable (@calendar, @period) (att.datable.w3c (@when, @notBefore, @notAfter, @from, @to)) att.naming (@role) (att.canonical (@ref))
Member of
Contained by
May contain
Declaration
element affiliation
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.editLike.attributes,
   att.datable.attributes,
   att.naming.attributes,
   macro.phraseSeq
}
Example
<affiliation>Junior project officer for the US <name type="org">National Endowment for    the Humanities</name> </affiliation> <affiliation notAfter="1960-01-01notBefore="1957-02-28">Paid up member of the <orgName>Australian Journalists Association</orgName> </affiliation>
NoteIf included, the name of an organization may be tagged using either the <name> element as above, or the more specific <orgName> element.

Appendix B.1.14 <age>

<age> specifies the age of a person. [13.3.2.1. Personal Characteristics]
Modulenamesdates — Formal declaration and Reference Pages
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style)) (att.global.linking (@corresp)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) att.editLike (att.dimensions (@unit, @quantity, @extent, @precision, @scope) (att.ranging (@atLeast, @atMost, @min, @max, @confidence)) ) (att.source (@source)) att.datable (@calendar, @period) (att.datable.w3c (@when, @notBefore, @notAfter, @from, @to))
valuesupplies a numeric code representing the age or age group
StatusOptional
Datatype
data.count
NoteThis attribute may be used to complement a more detailed discussion of a person's age in the content of the element
Member of
Contained by
namesdates: person
May contain
Declaration
element age
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.editLike.attributes,
   att.datable.attributes,
   attribute value { data.count }?,
   macro.phraseSeq.limited
}
Example
<age value="2notAfter="1986">under 20 in the early eighties</age>
NoteAs with other culturally-constructed traits such as sex, the way in which this concept is described in different cultural contexts may vary. The normalizing attributes are provided as a means of simplifying that variety to Western European norms and should not be used where that is inappropriate. The content of the element may be used to describe the intended concept in more detail, using plain text.

Appendix B.1.15 <altIdentifier>

<altIdentifier> (alternative identifier) contains an alternative or former structured identifier used for a manuscript, such as a former catalogue number. [10.4. The Manuscript Identifier]
Modulemsdescription — Formal declaration and Reference Pages
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style)) (att.global.linking (@corresp)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) att.typed (@type)
Contained by
msdescription: msIdentifier msPart
May contain
Declaration
element altIdentifier
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.typed.attributes,
   (
      model.placeNamePart_sequenceOptional,
      institution?,
      repository?,
      collection?,
      idno,
      note?
   )
}
Example
<altIdentifier>  <settlement>San Marino</settlement>  <repository>Huntington Library</repository>  <idno>MS.El.26.C.9</idno> </altIdentifier>
NoteAn identifying number of some kind must be supplied if known; if it is not known, this should be stated.

Appendix B.1.16 <anchor/>

<anchor/> (anchor point) attaches an identifier to a point within a text, whether or not it corresponds with a textual element. [8.4.2. Synchronization and Overlap 16.4. Correspondence and Alignment]
Modulelinking — Formal declaration and Reference Pages
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style)) (att.global.linking (@corresp)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) att.typed (@type)
Member of
Contained by
May containEmpty element
Declaration
element anchor { att.global.attributes, att.typed.attributes, empty }
Example
<s>The anchor is he<anchor xml:id="A234"/>re somewhere.</s> <s>Help me find it.<ptr target="#A234"/> </s>
NoteOn this element, the global xml:id attribute must be supplied to specify an identifier for the point at which this element occurs within a document. The value used may be chosen freely provided that it is unique within the document and is a syntactically valid name. There is no requirement for values containing numbers to be in sequence.

Appendix B.1.17 <app>

<app> (apparatus entry) contains one entry in a critical apparatus, with an optional lemma and usually one or more readings or notes on the relevant passage. [12.1.1. The Apparatus Entry]
Moduletextcrit — Formal declaration and Reference Pages
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style)) (att.global.linking (@corresp)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp))
typeclassifies the variation contained in this element according to some convenient typology.
StatusOptional
Datatype
data.enumerated
fromidentifies the beginning of the lemma in the base text.
StatusOptional
Datatype
data.pointer
NoteThis attribute should be used when either the double-end point method of apparatus markup, or the location-referenced method with a URL rather than canonical reference, are used.
toidentifies the endpoint of the lemma in the base text.
StatusOptional
Datatype
data.pointer
NoteThis attribute is only used when the double-end point method of apparatus markup is used, when the encoded apparatus is not embedded in-line in the base-text.
loc(location) indicates the location of the variation, when the location-referenced method of apparatus markup is used.
StatusOptional
Datatype1–∞ occurrences of 
data.word
separated by whitespace
NoteThis attribute is used only when the location-referenced encoding method is used. It supplies a string containing a canonical reference for the passage to which the variation applies.
Member of
Contained by
May contain
Declaration
element app
{
   att.global.attributes,
   attribute type { data.enumerated }?,
   attribute from { data.pointer }?,
   attribute to { data.pointer }?,
   attribute loc { list { data.word+ } }?,
   (
      (
         model.global.meta
       | model.global.spoken
       | model.milestoneLikemodel.noteLikeaddSpandamageSpandelSpangapspacefiguremetamark
       | notatedMusic
      )*,
      (
         lem,
         (
            model.global.meta
          | model.global.spoken
          | model.milestoneLikemodel.noteLikeaddSpandamageSpandelSpangapspacefiguremetamark
          | notatedMusic
         )*,
         (
            wit,
            (
               model.global.meta
             | model.global.spoken
             | model.milestoneLikemodel.noteLikeaddSpandamageSpandelSpangapspacefiguremetamark
             | notatedMusic
            )*
         )?
      )?,
      (
         (
            model.rdgLike,
            (
               model.global.meta
             | model.global.spoken
             | model.milestoneLikemodel.noteLikeaddSpandamageSpandelSpangapspacefiguremetamark
             | notatedMusic
            )*,
            (
               wit,
               (
                  model.global.meta
                | model.global.spoken
                | model.milestoneLikemodel.noteLikeaddSpandamageSpandelSpangapspacefiguremetamark
                | notatedMusic
               )*
            )?
         )
       | (
            rdgGrp,
            (
               model.global.meta
             | model.global.spoken
             | model.milestoneLikemodel.noteLikeaddSpandamageSpandelSpangapspacefiguremetamark
             | notatedMusic
            )*,
            (
               wit,
               (
                  model.global.meta
                | model.global.spoken
                | model.milestoneLikemodel.noteLikeaddSpandamageSpandelSpangapspacefiguremetamark
                | notatedMusic
               )*
            )?
         )
      )*
   )
}
Example
<app>  <lem wit="#El #Hg">Experience</lem>  <rdg wit="#Latype="substantive">Experiment</rdg>  <rdg wit="#Ra2type="substantive">Eryment</rdg> </app>
Example
<app type="substantive">  <rdgGrp type="subvariants">   <lem wit="#El #Hg">Experience</lem>   <rdg wit="#Ha4">Experiens</rdg>  </rdgGrp>  <rdgGrp type="subvariants">   <lem wit="#Cp #Ld1">Experiment</lem>   <rdg wit="#La">Ex<g ref="#per"/>iment</rdg>  </rdgGrp>  <rdgGrp type="subvariants">   <lem resp="#ed2013">Eriment</lem>   <rdg wit="#Ra2">Eryment</rdg>  </rdgGrp> </app>
Example
<app loc="1">  <rdg resp="#SEG">TIMΩΔA</rdg> </app>
Example
<app loc="1-6">  <note>Too badly worn to yield a text</note> </app>
Example
<choice xml:id="choice3">  <reg>σύμπαντα</reg>  <orig>ΣΙΝΠΑΤΑΝ</orig> </choice> <!-- ... --> <app from="#choice3">  <note>Mommsen's fanciful normalization, reproduced here, has not been accepted by all recent editions</note> </app>

Appendix B.1.18 <author>

<author> in a bibliographic reference, contains the name(s) of an author, personal or corporate, of a work; for example in the same form as that provided by a recognized bibliographic name authority. [3.11.2.2. Titles, Authors, and Editors 2.2.1. The Title Statement]
Modulecore — Formal declaration and Reference Pages
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style)) (att.global.linking (@corresp)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) att.naming (@role) (att.canonical (@ref))
Member of
Contained by
core: bibl monogr
msdescription: msItem
May contain
Declaration
element author
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.naming.attributes,
   macro.phraseSeq
}
Example
<author>British Broadcasting Corporation</author> <author>La Fayette, Marie Madeleine Pioche de la Vergne, comtesse de (1634–1693)</author> <author>Anonymous</author> <author>Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation</author> <author>  <persName>Beaumont, Francis</persName> and <persName>John Fletcher</persName> </author> <author>  <orgName key="BBC">British Broadcasting    Corporation</orgName>: Radio 3 Network </author>
NoteParticularly where cataloguing is likely to be based on the content of the header, it is advisable to use a generally recognized name authority file to supply the content for this element. The attributes key or ref may also be used to reference canonical information about the author(s) intended from any appropriate authority, such as a library catalogue or online resource.In the case of a broadcast, use this element for the name of the company or network responsible for making the broadcast.
Where an author is unknown or unspecified, this element may contain text such as Unknown or Anonymous. When the appropriate TEI modules are in use, it may also contain detailed tagging of the names used for people, organizations or places, in particular where multiple names are given.

Appendix B.1.19 <authority>

<authority> (release authority) supplies the name of a person or other agency responsible for making a work available, other than a publisher or distributor. [2.2.4. Publication, Distribution, Licensing, etc.]
Moduleheader — Formal declaration and Reference Pages
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style)) (att.global.linking (@corresp)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp))
Member of
Contained by
core: monogr
May contain
Declaration
element authority { att.global.attributes, macro.phraseSeq.limited }
Example
<authority>John Smith</authority>

Appendix B.1.20 <availability>

<availability> supplies information about the availability of a text, for example any restrictions on its use or distribution, its copyright status, any licence applying to it, etc. [2.2.4. Publication, Distribution, Licensing, etc.]
Moduleheader — Formal declaration and Reference Pages
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style)) (att.global.linking (@corresp)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) att.declarable (@default)
statussupplies a code identifying the current availability of the text.
StatusOptional
Datatype
data.enumerated
Legal values are:
free
the text is freely available.
unknown
the status of the text is unknown.[Default]
restricted
the text is not freely available.
Member of
Contained by
core: bibl monogr
msdescription: adminInfo
May contain
core: p
header: licence
linking: ab
Declaration
element availability
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.declarable.attributes,
   attribute status { "free" | "unknown" | "restricted" }?,
   ( model.availabilityPart | model.pLike )+
}
Example
<availability status="restricted">  <p>Available for academic research purposes only.</p> </availability> <availability status="free">  <p>In the public domain</p> </availability> <availability status="restricted">  <p>Available under licence from the publishers.</p> </availability>
Example
<availability>  <licence target="http://opensource.org/licenses/MIT">   <p>The MIT License      applies to this document.</p>   <p>Copyright (C) 2011 by The University of Victoria</p>   <p>Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy      of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal      in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights      to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell      copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is      furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:</p>   <p>The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in      all copies or substantial portions of the Software.</p>   <p>THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR      IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY,      FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE      AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER      LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM,      OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN      THE SOFTWARE.</p>  </licence> </availability>
NoteA consistent format should be adopted

Appendix B.1.21 <back>

<back> (back matter) contains any appendixes, etc. following the main part of a text. [4.7. Back Matter 4. Default Text Structure]
Moduletextstructure — Formal declaration and Reference Pages
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style)) (att.global.linking (@corresp)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp))
Contained by
textstructure: text
transcr: facsimile
May contain
Declaration
element back
{
   att.global.attributes,
   (
      (
         model.frontPartmodel.pLike.frontmodel.pLikemodel.listLikemodel.global
      )*,
      (
         (
            (
               ( model.div1Like ),
               ( model.frontPart | model.div1Like | model.global )*
            )
          | (
               ( model.divLike ),
               ( model.frontPart | model.divLike | model.global )*
            )
         )?
      ),
      ( ( ( model.divBottomPart ), ( model.divBottomPart | model.global )* )? )
   )
}
Example
<back>  <div1 type="appendix">   <head>The Golden Dream or, the Ingenuous Confession</head>   <p>To shew the Depravity of human Nature </p>  </div1>  <div1 type="epistle">   <head>A letter from the Printer, which he desires may be inserted</head>   <salute>Sir.</salute>   <p>I have done with your Copy, so you may return it to the Vatican, if you please </p>  </div1>  <div1 type="advert">   <head>The Books usually read by the Scholars of Mrs Two-Shoes are these and are sold at Mr      Newbery's at the Bible and Sun in St Paul's Church-yard.</head>   <list>    <item n="1">The Christmas Box, Price 1d.</item>    <item n="2">The History of Giles Gingerbread, 1d.</item>    <item n="42">A Curious Collection of Travels, selected from the Writers of all Nations,        10 Vol, Pr. bound 1l.</item>   </list>  </div1>  <div1 type="advert">   <head>    <hi rend="center">By the KING's Royal Patent,</hi> Are sold by J. NEWBERY, at the      Bible and Sun in St. Paul's Church-Yard.</head>   <list>    <item n="1">Dr. James's Powders for Fevers, the Small-Pox, Measles, Colds, &amp;c.        2s. 6d</item>    <item n="2">Dr. Hooper's Female Pills, 1s.</item>   </list>  </div1> </back>
NoteBecause cultural conventions differ as to which elements are grouped as back matter and which as front matter, the content models for the <back> and <front> elements are identical.

Appendix B.1.22 <bibl>

<bibl> (bibliographic citation) contains a loosely-structured bibliographic citation of which the sub-components may or may not be explicitly tagged. [3.11.1. Methods of Encoding Bibliographic References and Lists of References 2.2.7. The Source Description 15.3.2. Declarable Elements]
Modulecore — Formal declaration and Reference Pages
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style)) (att.global.linking (@corresp)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) att.declarable (@default) att.typed (@type) att.sortable (@sortKey) att.docStatus (@status)
Member of
Contained by
May contain
Declaration
element bibl
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.declarable.attributes,
   att.typed.attributes,
   att.sortable.attributes,
   att.docStatus.attributes,
   (
      text
    | model.gLike
    | model.highlightedmodel.pPart.datamodel.pPart.editmodel.segLikemodel.ptrLikemodel.biblPartmodel.global
   )*
}
Example
<bibl>Blain, Clements and Grundy: Feminist Companion to Literature in English (Yale, 1990)</bibl>
Example
<bibl>  <title level="a">The Interesting story of the Children in the Wood</title>. In <author>Victor E Neuberg</author>, <title>The Penny Histories</title>. <publisher>OUP</publisher>  <date>1968</date>. </bibl>
Example
<bibl type="articlesubtype="book_chapterxml:id="carlin_2003">  <author>   <name>    <surname>Carlin</surname>      (<forename>Claire</forename>)</name>  </author>, <title level="a">The Staging of Impotence : France’s last    congrès</title> dans <bibl type="monogr">   <title level="m">Theatrum mundi : studies in honor of Ronald W.      Tobin</title>, éd.  <editor>    <name>     <forename>Claire</forename>     <surname>Carlin</surname>    </name>   </editor> et  <editor>    <name>     <forename>Kathleen</forename>     <surname>Wine</surname>    </name>   </editor>,  <pubPlace>Charlottesville, Va.</pubPlace>,  <publisher>Rookwood Press</publisher>,  <date when="2003">2003</date>.  </bibl> </bibl>
NoteContains phrase-level elements, together with any combination of elements from the biblPart class

Appendix B.1.23 <biblScope>

<biblScope> (scope of bibliographic reference) defines the scope of a bibliographic reference, for example as a list of page numbers, or a named subdivision of a larger work. [3.11.2.5. Scopes and Ranges in Bibliographic Citations]
Modulecore — Formal declaration and Reference Pages
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style)) (att.global.linking (@corresp)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) att.citing (@unit, @from, @to)
Member of
Contained by
May contain
Declaration
element biblScope
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.citing.attributes,
   macro.phraseSeq
}
Example
<biblScope>pp 12–34</biblScope> <biblScope unit="pagefrom="12to="34"/> <biblScope unit="volume">II</biblScope> <biblScope unit="page">12</biblScope>
NoteWhen a single page is being cited, use the from and to attributes with an identical value. When no clear endpoint is provided, the from attribute should be used without to. For example, if the citation has ‘p. 3ff’ as a page reference.

Appendix B.1.24 <biblStruct>

<biblStruct> (structured bibliographic citation) contains a structured bibliographic citation, in which only bibliographic sub-elements appear and in a specified order. [3.11.1. Methods of Encoding Bibliographic References and Lists of References 2.2.7. The Source Description 15.3.2. Declarable Elements]
Modulecore — Formal declaration and Reference Pages
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style)) (att.global.linking (@corresp)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) att.declarable (@default) att.typed (@type) att.sortable (@sortKey) att.docStatus (@status)
Member of
Contained by
May contain
header: idno
Declaration
element biblStruct
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.declarable.attributes,
   att.typed.attributes,
   att.sortable.attributes,
   att.docStatus.attributes,
   (
      analytic*,
      ( monogr, series* )+,
      ( model.noteLike | idno | model.ptrLike | relatedItem | citedRange )*
   )
}
SchematronThe use of an <idno> element as a direct child of <biblStruct> is deprecated. Rather, <idno> should appear as a child of a <monogr>, <analytic>, or <series>.
<sch:report test="child::tei:idno"  role="nonfatal">WARNING: use of deprecated method — the use of the idno element as a direct child of the biblStruct element will be removed from the TEI on 2016-09-18</sch:report>
Example
<biblStruct>  <monogr>   <author>Blain, Virginia</author>   <author>Clements, Patricia</author>   <author>Grundy, Isobel</author>   <title>The Feminist Companion to Literature in English: women writers from the middle ages      to the present</title>   <edition>first edition</edition>   <imprint>    <publisher>Yale University Press</publisher>    <pubPlace>New Haven and London</pubPlace>    <date>1990</date>   </imprint>  </monogr> </biblStruct>

Appendix B.1.25 <birth>

<birth> contains information about a person's birth, such as its date and place. [15.2.2. The Participant Description]
Modulenamesdates — Formal declaration and Reference Pages
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style)) (att.global.linking (@corresp)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) att.editLike (att.dimensions (@unit, @quantity, @extent, @precision, @scope) (att.ranging (@atLeast, @atMost, @min, @max, @confidence)) ) (att.source (@source)) att.datable (@calendar, @period) (att.datable.w3c (@when, @notBefore, @notAfter, @from, @to)) att.naming (@role) (att.canonical (@ref))
Member of
Contained by
namesdates: person
May contain
Declaration
element birth
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.editLike.attributes,
   att.datable.attributes,
   att.naming.attributes,
   macro.phraseSeq
}
Example
<birth>Before 1920, Midlands region.</birth>
Example
<birth when="1960-12-10">In a small cottage near <name type="place">Aix-la-Chapelle</name>, early in the morning of <date>10 Dec 1960</date> </birth>

Appendix B.1.26 <bloc>

<bloc> contains the name of a geo-political unit consisting of two or more nation states or countries. [13.2.3. Place Names]
Modulenamesdates — Formal declaration and Reference Pages
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style)) (att.global.linking (@corresp)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) att.naming (@role) (att.canonical (@ref)) att.typed (@type) att.datable (@calendar, @period) (att.datable.w3c (@when, @notBefore, @notAfter, @from, @to))
Member of
Contained by
May contain
Declaration
element bloc
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.naming.attributes,
   att.typed.attributes,
   att.datable.attributes,
   macro.phraseSeq
}
Example
<bloc type="union">the European Union</bloc> <bloc type="continent">Africa</bloc>

Appendix B.1.27 <body>

<body> (text body) contains the whole body of a single unitary text, excluding any front or back matter. [4. Default Text Structure]
Moduletextstructure — Formal declaration and Reference Pages
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style)) (att.global.linking (@corresp)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp))
Contained by
textstructure: text
May contain
Declaration
element body
{
   att.global.attributes,
   (
      model.global*,
      ( ( model.divTop ), ( model.global | model.divTop )* )?,
      ( ( model.divGenLike ), ( model.global | model.divGenLike )* )?,
      (
         ( ( model.divLike ), ( model.global | model.divGenLike )* )+
       | ( ( model.div1Like ), ( model.global | model.divGenLike )* )+
       | (
            ( ( model.common ), model.global* )+,
            (
               ( ( model.divLike ), ( model.global | model.divGenLike )* )+
             | ( ( model.div1Like ), ( model.global | model.divGenLike )* )+
            )?
         )
      ),
      ( ( model.divBottom ), model.global* )*
   )
}

Appendix B.1.28 <catDesc>

<catDesc> (category description) describes some category within a taxonomy or text typology, either in the form of a brief prose description or in terms of the situational parameters used by the TEI formal textDesc. [2.3.7. The Classification Declaration]
Moduleheader — Formal declaration and Reference Pages
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style)) (att.global.linking (@corresp)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp))
Contained by
header: category
May contain
Declaration
element catDesc
{
   att.global.attributes,
   ( text | model.limitedPhrase | model.catDescPart )*
}
Example
<catDesc>Prose reportage</catDesc>
Example
<catDesc>  <textDesc n="novel">   <channel mode="w">print; part issues</channel>   <constitution type="single"/>   <derivation type="original"/>   <domain type="art"/>   <factuality type="fiction"/>   <interaction type="none"/>   <preparedness type="prepared"/>   <purpose type="entertaindegree="high"/>   <purpose type="informdegree="medium"/>  </textDesc> </catDesc>

Appendix B.1.29 <category>

<category> contains an individual descriptive category, possibly nested within a superordinate category, within a user-defined taxonomy. [2.3.7. The Classification Declaration]
Moduleheader — Formal declaration and Reference Pages
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style)) (att.global.linking (@corresp)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp))
Contained by
May contain
core: desc gloss
Declaration
element category
{
   att.global.attributes,
   ( ( catDesc+ | ( model.descLike | model.glossLike )* ), category* )
}
Example
<category xml:id="b1">  <catDesc>Prose reportage</catDesc> </category>
Example
<category xml:id="b2">  <catDesc>Prose </catDesc>  <category xml:id="b11">   <catDesc>journalism</catDesc>  </category>  <category xml:id="b12">   <catDesc>fiction</catDesc>  </category> </category>
Example
<category xml:id="LIT">  <catDesc xml:lang="pl">literatura piękna</catDesc>  <catDesc xml:lang="en">fiction</catDesc>  <category xml:id="LPROSE">   <catDesc xml:lang="pl">proza</catDesc>   <catDesc xml:lang="en">prose</catDesc>  </category>  <category xml:id="LPOETRY">   <catDesc xml:lang="pl">poezja</catDesc>   <catDesc xml:lang="en">poetry</catDesc>  </category>  <category xml:id="LDRAMA">   <catDesc xml:lang="pl">dramat</catDesc>   <catDesc xml:lang="en">drama</catDesc>  </category> </category>

Appendix B.1.30 <cb/>

<cb/> (column break) marks the beginning of a new column of a text on a multi-column page. [3.10.3. Milestone Elements]
Modulecore — Formal declaration and Reference Pages
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style)) (att.global.linking (@corresp)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) att.typed (@type) att.spanning (@spanTo) att.breaking (@break)
Member of
Contained by
May containEmpty element
Declaration
element cb
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.typed.attributes,
   att.spanning.attributes,
   att.breaking.attributes,
   empty
}
ExampleMarkup of an early English dictionary printed in two columns:
<pb/> <cb n="1"/> <entryFree>  <form>Well</form>, <sense>a Pit to hold Spring-Water</sense>: <sense>In the Art of <hi rend="italic">War</hi>, a Depth the Miner    sinks into the Ground, to find out and disappoint the Enemies Mines,    or to prepare one</sense>. </entryFree> <entryFree>To <form>Welter</form>, <sense>to wallow</sense>, or <sense>lie groveling</sense>.</entryFree> <!-- remainder of column --> <cb n="2"/> <entryFree>  <form>Wey</form>, <sense>the greatest Measure for dry Things,    containing five Chaldron</sense>. </entryFree> <entryFree>  <form>Whale</form>, <sense>the greatest of    Sea-Fishes</sense>. </entryFree>
NoteOn this element, the global n attribute indicates the number or other value associated with the column which follows the point of insertion of this <cb/> element. Encoders should adopt a clear and consistent policy as to whether the numbers associated with column breaks relate to the physical sequence number of the column in the whole text, or whether columns are numbered within the page. The <cb/> element is placed at the head of the column to which it refers.

Appendix B.1.31 <cell>

<cell> contains one cell of a table. [14.1.1. TEI Tables]
Modulefigures — Formal declaration and Reference Pages
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style)) (att.global.linking (@corresp)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) att.tableDecoration (@role, @rows, @cols)
Contained by
figures: row
May contain
Declaration
element cell
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.tableDecoration.attributes,
   macro.specialPara
}
Example
<row>  <cell role="label">General conduct</cell>  <cell role="data">Not satisfactory, on account of his great unpunctuality    and inattention to duties</cell> </row>

Appendix B.1.32 <change>

<change> documents a change or set of changes made during the production of a source document, or during the revision of an electronic file. [2.6. The Revision Description 2.4.1. Creation 11.7. Changes]
Moduleheader — Formal declaration and Reference Pages
AttributesAttributes att.ascribed (@who) att.datable (@calendar, @period) (att.datable.w3c (@when, @notBefore, @notAfter, @from, @to)) att.docStatus (@status) att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style)) (att.global.linking (@corresp)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) att.typed (@type)
targetpoints to one or more elements that belong to this change.
StatusOptional
Datatype1–∞ occurrences of 
data.pointer
separated by whitespace
Contained by
msdescription: recordHist
May contain
Declaration
element change
{
   att.ascribed.attributes,
   att.datable.attributes,
   att.docStatus.attributes,
   att.global.attributes,
   att.typed.attributes,
   attribute target { list { data.pointer+ } }?,
   macro.specialPara
}
Example
<titleStmt>  <title> ... </title>  <editor xml:id="LDB">Lou Burnard</editor>  <respStmt xml:id="BZ">   <resp>copy editing</resp>   <name>Brett Zamir</name>  </respStmt> </titleStmt> <!-- ... --> <revisionDesc status="published">  <change who="#BZwhen="2008-02-02status="public">Finished chapter 23</change>  <change who="#BZwhen="2008-01-02status="draft">Finished chapter 2</change>  <change n="P2.2when="1991-12-21who="#LDB">Added examples to section 3</change>  <change when="1991-11-11who="#MSM">Deleted chapter 10</change> </revisionDesc>
Example
<profileDesc>  <creation>   <listChange>    <change xml:id="DRAFT1">First draft in pencil</change>    <change xml:id="DRAFT2notBefore="1880-12-09">First revision, mostly        using green ink</change>    <change xml:id="DRAFT3notBefore="1881-02-13">Final corrections as        supplied to printer.</change>   </listChange>  </creation> </profileDesc>
NoteThe who attribute may be used to point to any other element, but will typically specify a <respStmt> or <person> element elsewhere in the header, identifying the person responsible for the change and their role in making it.It is recommended that changes be recorded with the most recent first. The status attribute may be used to indicate the status of a document following the change documented.

Appendix B.1.33 <choice>

<choice> groups a number of alternative encodings for the same point in a text. [3.4. Simple Editorial Changes]
Modulecore — Formal declaration and Reference Pages
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style)) (att.global.linking (@corresp)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp))
Member of
Contained by
May contain
Declaration
element choice { att.global.attributes, ( model.choicePart | choice )* }
ExampleAn American encoding of Gulliver's Travels which retains the British spelling but also provides a version regularized to American spelling might be encoded as follows.
<p>Lastly, That, upon his solemn oath to observe all the above articles, the said man-mountain shall have a daily allowance of meat and drink sufficient for the support of <choice>   <sic>1724</sic>   <corr>1728</corr>  </choice> of our subjects, with free access to our royal person, and other marks of our <choice>   <orig>favour</orig>   <reg>favor</reg>  </choice>.</p>
NoteBecause the children of a <choice> element all represent alternative ways of encoding the same sequence, it is natural to think of them as mutually exclusive. However, there may be cases where a full representation of a text requires the alternative encodings to be considered as parallel.Note also that <choice> elements may self-nest.
Where the purpose of an encoding is to record multiple witnesses of a single work, rather than to identify multiple possible encoding decisions at a given point, the <app> element and associated elements discussed in section 12.1. The Apparatus Entry, Readings, and Witnesses should be preferred.

Appendix B.1.34 <classDecl>

<classDecl> (classification declarations) contains one or more taxonomies defining any classificatory codes used elsewhere in the text. [2.3.7. The Classification Declaration 2.3. The Encoding Description]
Moduleheader — Formal declaration and Reference Pages
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style)) (att.global.linking (@corresp)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp))
Member of
Contained by
header: encodingDesc
May contain
header: taxonomy
Declaration
element classDecl { att.global.attributes, taxonomy+ }
Example
<classDecl>  <taxonomy xml:id="LCSH">   <bibl>Library of Congress Subject Headings</bibl>  </taxonomy> </classDecl> <!-- ... --> <textClass>  <keywords scheme="#LCSH">   <term>Political science</term>   <term>United States -- Politics and government —      Revolution, 1775-1783</term>  </keywords> </textClass>

Appendix B.1.35 <closer>

<closer> groups together salutations, datelines, and similar phrases appearing as a final group at the end of a division, especially of a letter. [4.2.2. Openers and Closers 4.2. Elements Common to All Divisions]
Moduletextstructure — Formal declaration and Reference Pages
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style)) (att.global.linking (@corresp)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp))
Member of
Contained by
core: list
figures: figure table
textstructure: back body div front postscript
May contain
Declaration
element closer
{
   att.global.attributes,
   (
      text
    | model.gLike
    | signeddatelinesalutemodel.phrasemodel.global
   )*
}
Example
<div type="letter">  <p> perhaps you will favour me with a sight of it when convenient.</p>  <closer>   <salute>I remain, &amp;c. &amp;c.</salute>   <signed>H. Colburn</signed>  </closer> </div>
Example
<div type="chapter">  <p> <!-- .... --> and his heart was going like mad and yes I said yes I will Yes.</p>  <closer>   <dateline>    <name type="place">Trieste-Zürich-Paris,</name>    <date>1914–1921</date>   </dateline>  </closer> </div>

Appendix B.1.36 <collection>

<collection> contains the name of a collection of manuscripts, not necessarily located within a single repository. [10.4. The Manuscript Identifier]
Modulemsdescription — Formal declaration and Reference Pages
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style)) (att.global.linking (@corresp)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) att.naming (@role) (att.canonical (@ref)) att.typed (@type)
Contained by
May containCharacter data only
Declaration
element collection
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.naming.attributes,
   att.typed.attributes,
   macro.xtext
}
Example
<msIdentifier>  <country>USA</country>  <region>California</region>  <settlement>San Marino</settlement>  <repository>Huntington Library</repository>  <collection>Ellesmere</collection>  <idno>El 26 C 9</idno>  <msName>The Ellesmere Chaucer</msName> </msIdentifier>

Appendix B.1.37 <condition>

<condition> contains a description of the physical condition of the manuscript. [10.7.1.5. Condition]
Modulemsdescription — Formal declaration and Reference Pages
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style)) (att.global.linking (@corresp)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp))
Contained by
msdescription: sealDesc supportDesc
May contain
Declaration
element condition { att.global.attributes, macro.specialPara }
Example
<condition>  <p>There are lacunae in three places in this    manuscript. After 14v two    leaves has been cut out and narrow strips leaves remains in the spine. After    68v one gathering is missing and after 101v at least one gathering of 8 leaves    has been lost. </p>  <p>Several leaves are damaged with tears or holes or have a    irregular shape. Some of the damages do not allow the lines to be of full    length and they are apparently older than the script. There are tears on fol.    2r-v, 9r-v, 10r-v, 15r-18v, 19r-v, 20r-22v, 23r-v, 24r-28v, 30r-v, 32r-35v,    37r-v, 38r-v, 40r-43v, 45r-47v, 49r-v, 51r-v, 53r-60v, 67r-v, 68r-v, 70r-v,    74r-80v, 82r-v, 86r-v, 88r-v, 89r-v, 95r-v, 97r-98v 99r-v, 100r-v. On fol. 98    the corner has been torn off. Several leaves are in a bad condition due to    moist and wear, and have become dark, bleached or    wrinkled. </p>  <p>The script has been    touched up in the 17th century with black ink. The touching up on the following    fols. was done by  <name>Bishop Brynjólf Sveinsson</name>: 1v, 3r, 4r, 5r,    6v, 8v,9r, 10r, 14r, 14v, 22r,30v, 36r-52v, 72v, 77r,78r,103r, 104r,. An    AM-note says according to the lawman  <name>Sigurður Björnsson</name> that the rest of the    touching up was done by himself and another lawman  <name>Sigurður Jónsson</name>.  <name>Sigurður Björnsson</name> did the touching up    on the following fols.: 46v, 47r, 48r, 49r-v, 50r, 52r-v.  <name>Sigurður Jónsson</name> did the rest of the    touching up in the section 36r-59r containing  <title>Bretasögur</title>  </p> </condition>

Appendix B.1.38 <corr>

<corr> (correction) contains the correct form of a passage apparently erroneous in the copy text. [3.4.1. Apparent Errors]
Modulecore — Formal declaration and Reference Pages
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style)) (att.global.linking (@corresp)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) att.editLike (att.dimensions (@unit, @quantity, @extent, @precision, @scope) (att.ranging (@atLeast, @atMost, @min, @max, @confidence)) ) (att.source (@source)) att.typed (@type)
Member of
Contained by
May contain
Declaration
element corr
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.editLike.attributes,
   att.typed.attributes,
   macro.paraContent
}
ExampleIf all that is desired is to call attention to the fact that the copy text has been corrected, <corr> may be used alone:
I don't know, Juan. It's so far in the past now — how <corr>can we</corr> prove or disprove anyone's theories?
ExampleIt is also possible, using the <choice> and <sic> elements, to provide an uncorrected reading:
I don't know, Juan. It's so far in the past now — how <choice>  <sic>we can</sic>  <corr>can we</corr> </choice> prove or disprove anyone's theories?

Appendix B.1.39 <country>

<country> contains the name of a geo-political unit, such as a nation, country, colony, or commonwealth, larger than or administratively superior to a region and smaller than a bloc. [13.2.3. Place Names]
Modulenamesdates — Formal declaration and Reference Pages
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style)) (att.global.linking (@corresp)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) att.naming (@role) (att.canonical (@ref)) att.typed (@type) att.datable (@calendar, @period) (att.datable.w3c (@when, @notBefore, @notAfter, @from, @to))
Member of
Contained by
May contain
Declaration
element country
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.naming.attributes,
   att.typed.attributes,
   att.datable.attributes,
   macro.phraseSeq
}
Example
<country key="DK">Denmark</country>
NoteThe recommended source for codes to represent coded country names is ISO 3166.

Appendix B.1.40 <custEvent>

<custEvent> (custodial event) describes a single event during the custodial history of a manuscript. [10.9.1.2. Availability and Custodial History]
Modulemsdescription — Formal declaration and Reference Pages
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style)) (att.global.linking (@corresp)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) att.datable (@calendar, @period) (att.datable.w3c (@when, @notBefore, @notAfter, @from, @to)) att.typed (@type)
Contained by
msdescription: custodialHist
May contain
Declaration
element custEvent
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.datable.attributes,
   att.typed.attributes,
   macro.specialPara
}
Example
<custEvent type="photography">Photographed by David Cooper on <date>12 Dec 1964</date> </custEvent>

Appendix B.1.41 <custodialHist>

<custodialHist> (custodial history) contains a description of a manuscript's custodial history, either as running prose or as a series of dated custodial events. [10.9.1.2. Availability and Custodial History]
Modulemsdescription — Formal declaration and Reference Pages
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style)) (att.global.linking (@corresp)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp))
Contained by
msdescription: adminInfo
May contain
core: p
linking: ab
msdescription: custEvent
Declaration
element custodialHist { att.global.attributes, ( model.pLike+ | custEvent+ ) }
Example
<custodialHist>  <custEvent type="conservationnotBefore="1961-03"   notAfter="1963-02">Conserved between March 1961 and February 1963 at    Birgitte Dalls Konserveringsværksted.</custEvent>  <custEvent type="photographynotBefore="1988-05-01"   notAfter="1988-05-30">Photographed in    May 1988 by AMI/FA.</custEvent>  <custEvent type="transfer-dispatchnotBefore="1989-11-13"   notAfter="1989-11-13">Dispatched to Iceland    13 November 1989.</custEvent> </custodialHist>

Appendix B.1.42 <damage>

<damage> contains an area of damage to the text witness. [11.3.3.1. Damage, Illegibility, and Supplied Text]
Moduletranscr — Formal declaration and Reference Pages
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style)) (att.global.linking (@corresp)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) att.typed (@type) att.damaged (@hand, @agent, @degree, @group) (att.dimensions (@unit, @quantity, @extent, @precision, @scope) (att.ranging (@atLeast, @atMost, @min, @max, @confidence)) )
Member of
Contained by
May contain
Declaration
element damage
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.typed.attributes,
   att.damaged.attributes,
   macro.paraContent
}
Example
<l>The Moving Finger wri<damage agent="watergroup="1">es; and</damage> having writ,</l> <l>Moves <damage agent="watergroup="1">   <supplied>on: nor all your</supplied>  </damage> Piety nor Wit</l>
NoteSince damage to text witnesses frequently makes them harder to read, the <damage> element will often contain an <unclear> element. If the damaged area is not continuous (e.g. a stain affecting several strings of text), the group attribute may be used to group together several related <damage> elements; alternatively the <join> element may be used to indicate which <damage> and <unclear> elements are part of the same physical phenomenon.The <damage>, <gap>, <del>, <unclear> and <supplied> elements may be closely allied in use. See section 11.3.3.2. Use of the gap, del, damage, unclear, and supplied Elements in Combination for discussion of which element is appropriate for which circumstance.

Appendix B.1.43 <damageSpan/>

<damageSpan/> (damaged span of text) marks the beginning of a longer sequence of text which is damaged in some way but still legible. [11.3.3.1. Damage, Illegibility, and Supplied Text]
Moduletranscr — Formal declaration and Reference Pages
AttributesAttributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style)) (att.global.linking (@corresp)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) att.damaged (@hand, @agent, @degree, @group) (att.dimensions (@unit, @quantity, @extent, @precision, @scope) (att.ranging (@atLeast, @atMost, @min, @max, @confidence)) ) att.typed (@type) att.spanning (@spanTo)